姜丽霞,李秀芬,朱海霞,高明,王秋京,闫平,宫丽娟,翟墨,纪仰慧,王萍.黑龙江省玉米苗期低温冷害与干旱混发特征及其对产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2020,38(1):255~265
黑龙江省玉米苗期低温冷害与干旱混发特征及其对产量的影响
Characteristics of combination of cold damage and drought during seedling period and its effects on maize yield in Heilongjang Province
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2020.01.33
中文关键词:  ≥10℃积温距平;水分亏缺指数;低温冷害  干旱;玉米;产量
英文关键词:accumulated temperature anomaly ≥10℃  water deficiency index  cold damage  drought  maize  yield
基金项目:中国气象局沈阳大气环境研究所区域合作项目(2018SYIAEHZ1);中国气象局沈阳大气环境研究所和辽宁省农业气象灾害重点实验室项目(2019SYIAE04); 国家自然科学基金(31671575,31671576);中国气象局东北地区生态气象创新开放实验室项目(stqx2019zd01)
作者单位
姜丽霞 Heilongjiang Province Institute of Meteorological Science, Innovation and Opening Laboratory of Regional Eco-Meteorology in Northeast, China Meteorological Administration, Meteorological Academician Workstation of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China 
李秀芬 Heilongjiang Province Institute of Meteorological Science, Innovation and Opening Laboratory of Regional Eco-Meteorology in Northeast, China Meteorological Administration, Meteorological Academician Workstation of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China 
朱海霞 Heilongjiang Province Institute of Meteorological Science, Innovation and Opening Laboratory of Regional Eco-Meteorology in Northeast, China Meteorological Administration, Meteorological Academician Workstation of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China 
高明 Heilongjiang Province Meteorological Bureau, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030,China 
王秋京 Heilongjiang Province Institute of Meteorological Science, Innovation and Opening Laboratory of Regional Eco-Meteorology in Northeast, China Meteorological Administration, Meteorological Academician Workstation of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China 
闫平 Heilongjiang Province Institute of Meteorological Science, Innovation and Opening Laboratory of Regional Eco-Meteorology in Northeast, China Meteorological Administration, Meteorological Academician Workstation of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China 
宫丽娟 Heilongjiang Province Institute of Meteorological Science, Innovation and Opening Laboratory of Regional Eco-Meteorology in Northeast, China Meteorological Administration, Meteorological Academician Workstation of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China 
翟墨 Heilongjiang Province Institute of Meteorological Science, Innovation and Opening Laboratory of Regional Eco-Meteorology in Northeast, China Meteorological Administration, Meteorological Academician Workstation of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China 
纪仰慧 Heilongjiang Province Institute of Meteorological Science, Innovation and Opening Laboratory of Regional Eco-Meteorology in Northeast, China Meteorological Administration, Meteorological Academician Workstation of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China 
王萍 Heilongjiang Province Institute of Meteorological Science, Innovation and Opening Laboratory of Regional Eco-Meteorology in Northeast, China Meteorological Administration, Meteorological Academician Workstation of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China 
摘要点击次数: 65
全文下载次数: 43
中文摘要:
      利用1981—2016年黑龙江省玉米农业气象观测站的资料,引入中华人民共和国气象行业标准中≥10℃积温距平、水分亏缺指数(KCWDI)等指标,分别对玉米出苗~七叶期冷害、干旱进行判识,规定同一站点同一年份内冷害、干旱均有发生为两种灾害混合发生,并分析其时空分布特征,以数理统计方法构建积温距平、KCWDI与玉米单产的关系,同时应用相对产量方法探讨两种灾害混发逆境对玉米产量的影响。结果表明:1981—2016年间,研究区玉米出苗~七叶期≥10℃积温距平呈增加趋势(P<0.01),空间上具有北低南高的纬向特征,KCWDI随时间呈波动式变化,空间上表现为西多东少的经向规律,两种灾害指标的变化对气候变暖趋势及研究区资源分布配置具有明显响应;研究期间,各站玉米出苗~七叶期冷害、干旱混合发生年数为0~10 a,研究区累计发生59 a。时间上,两种灾害混合发生呈减少趋势,1990年代中期以前为高发期,之后发生频率下降。空间分布上,两种灾害混合发生表现为由西至东减少趋势,频发区处于松嫩平原西部;玉米出苗~七叶期≥10℃积温距平、KCWDI与玉米单产存在显著或极显著的相关关系(P<0.05或P<0.01),前者为正效应影响,后者为负效应影响,表征≥10℃积温距平升高、KCWDI减小,玉米产量呈升高趋势,反之呈下降趋势;玉米出苗~七叶期冷害与干旱混发逆境对玉米产量影响总体以负效应为主。
英文摘要:
      Based on the observation data from agro\|meteorological stations from 1981 to 2016 in Heilongjiang Province and by using of accumulated temperature anomaly ≥ 10℃ and water deficiency index (KCWDI) indicators from the People’s Republic of China meteorological industry standards for assessment of cold damage and drought to maize during seedling\|seventh leaf period separately, this paper stipulated that combination emergence of two kinds of disasters, which cold damage and drought year occurred in the same year in the same station, and the temporal and spatial distributions of them were analyzed. The relationship between accumulated temperature anomaly ≥10℃, KCWDI, and maize yield was constructed by mathematical and statistical method, and the effects of two kinds of disasters on maize yield were investigated by relative yield method. The results showed that accumulated temperature anomaly ≥10℃ increased(P<0.01)from 1981 to 2016, and the latitude change was that accumulated temperature anomaly ≥10℃ was low in the north and high in the south, and KCWDI fluctuated, and its longitude change was that KCWDI was high in the west and low in the east during maize seedling\|seventh leaf period in the study area, and this two kinds of disaster occurrence was consistent with climate warming trend and resource distribution in the research area. The sum of cold damage and drought years was from 0 to 10 in each station and the total number was 59 years in the whole study area during the research period. The frequency of cold damage and drought year decreased, and its appearance was frequent before mid-1990. After that, the frequency declined. The frequency of cold damage and drought year in the west was higher than that in the east, and there were frequent cold damage and drought years in Songnen Plain. Correlation between accumulated temperature anomaly ≥10℃, KCWDI, and maize yield was significant (P<0.05或P<0.01) in maize seedling\|seventh leaf period, and accumulated temperature anomaly ≥10℃ had a positive impact on maize yield, and KCWDI had a negative effect on maize yield, so the former increased and the latter decreased, which was favorable to maize yield. On the contrary, decrease in temperature and increase in water deficit were disadvantageous to maize yield increase. The effects of cold damage and drought stress on maize yield were mainly negative at maize seedling\|seventh leaf stage.
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