窦巧巧,张巨松,何庆雨,代健敏,谢玲,张玮涛,陈秀玲.花铃期减量滴灌对北疆棉花光合特性及产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2021,(3):51~58
花铃期减量滴灌对北疆棉花光合特性及产量的影响
Effect of reduced drip irrigation on photosynthetic characteristics and yield of cotton during flowering and bollstagein in Northern Xinjiang
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2021.03.07
中文关键词:  棉花  花铃期  减量滴灌  光合特性  叶绿素荧光  产量
英文关键词:cotton  flowering and boll stage  reduced drip irrigation  photosynthetic characteristics  chlorophyll fluorescence  yield
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0101605-05);国家“十二五”科技支撑计划项目(2014BAD11B02);新疆维吾尔自治区重点研发项目(2016B01001-2)
作者单位
窦巧巧 Agriculture College, Xinjiang Agricultural University / Research Center of Cotton Engineering, Ministry of Education, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China 
张巨松 Agriculture College, Xinjiang Agricultural University / Research Center of Cotton Engineering, Ministry of Education, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China 
何庆雨 Agriculture College, Xinjiang Agricultural University / Research Center of Cotton Engineering, Ministry of Education, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China 
代健敏 Agriculture College, Xinjiang Agricultural University / Research Center of Cotton Engineering, Ministry of Education, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China 
谢玲 Agriculture College, Xinjiang Agricultural University / Research Center of Cotton Engineering, Ministry of Education, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China 
张玮涛 Agriculture College, Xinjiang Agricultural University / Research Center of Cotton Engineering, Ministry of Education, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China 
陈秀玲 Agriculture College, Xinjiang Agricultural University / Research Center of Cotton Engineering, Ministry of Education, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China 
摘要点击次数: 44
全文下载次数: 31
中文摘要:
      针对近年来新疆北部(北疆)棉花花铃期降雨量增加的现象,为明确花铃期减量滴灌是否可行及其对棉花产量形成过程的影响,以新陆早50号和新陆早73号为材料,设2个花铃期减量滴灌处理(W1:2 050 m3·hm-2,W2:1 650 m3·hm-2),同时以最适滴灌量作为对照(CK:2 450 m3·hm-2),系统分析了棉田0~60 cm不同土层土壤含水率动态变化、冠层叶片光合荧光特性和产量构成。结果表明:随滴灌量减少,各土层土壤含水率降幅增加。在处理33~45 d,两个品种减量滴灌处理气孔导度(Gs)、胞间CO2浓度(Ci)和净光合速率(Pn)分别下降5.40%~35.48%、1.24%~9.47%和9.22%~26.78%,品种间比较新陆早50号降幅较大。两个品种相对可变荧光曲线(ΔVt)在K点(300 μs)出现较大波动,且W2处理高于W1处理。W2处理下新陆早50号和新陆早73号ΔK值分别为0.025和0.0239,Wk值较对照分别增加54.55%和35.14%。两个品种棉花叶片MoVIVJ均表现为W2> W1> CK,ψoφPoφEoPIABS,total均随滴灌量减少而降低,其中,新陆早50号降幅较大。W1和W2处理下两个品种单株铃数分别减少1.67%~3.17%和14.29%~15.00%,分别减产6.27%~7.77%和19.28%~21.75%,新陆早50号减产较多。减量滴灌处理使棉花叶片Pn下降的主要原因是气孔限制因素,但未造成北疆棉田花铃期严重水分亏缺。W1处理下两个品种棉花叶片光合机构的PSⅡ供体侧放氧复合体(OEC)未受到明显伤害,减产较少,可作为北疆棉田花铃期供水不足时的参考滴灌量。品种间比较,新陆早73号更适宜北疆棉田供水不足时种植。
英文摘要:
      According to the phenomenon of increasing rainfall at cotton flowering and boll stage in Northern Xinjiang in recent years, in order to clearify whether it is feasible to reduce drip irrigation at flowering and boll stage and its influence on the formation process of cotton yield, with Xinluzao 50 and Xinluzao 73 as materials, we set up an experiment with two reduction drip irrigation during flowering and boll stage (W1: 2 050 m3·hm-2,W2: 1 650 m3·hm-2) and at the same time with the optimal amount of drip irrigation as control (CK: 2 450 m3·hm-2) with dynamic changes of soil water content. The photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics and yield composition of canopy leaves in different soil layers of 0~60 cm after treatment were systematically analyzed. The results showed that with decreasing drip irrigation amount, the reduction range of soil moisture content increased.In the treatment of 33~45 d, stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) decreased by 5.40%~35.48%, 1.24%~9.47%, and 9.22%~26.78%, respectively, in the treatment of reduced drip irrigation of the two varieties where Xinluzao 50 decreased greatly among varieties. The different plots of relative chlorophyll a fluorescence (ΔVt) of the two varieties fluctuated greatly at the K point (300 μs), and W2 treatment was higher than W1 treatment. Under W2 treatment,the ΔK of Xinluzao 50 and Xinluzao 73 were 0.025 and 0.0239, respectively, Wk value increased by 54.55% and 35.14% compared with the control, respectively. The Mo, VI, and VJ of two varieties were showed as W2<./sub>> W1> CK, and ψo, φPo,φEo, and PIABS,total all decreased with the reduction of drip irrigation. Among them, Xinluzao 50 decreased more. Under W1 and W2 treatments,the boll number per plant of two varieties decreased by 1.67%~3.17% and 14.29%~15.00%, respectively, and the yield decreased by 6.27%~7.77% and 19.28%~21.75%, respectively, the yield of Xinluzao 50 decreased more. The main reason of reduced drip irrigation treatments for the decrease of Pn of cotton leaves were stomatal limitation factors, but did not cause severe water deficit in cotton field in Northern Xinjiang during flowering and boll stage. Under W1 treatment, the PSⅡ donor\|side oxygen\|evolving complex (OEC) of the leaf photosynthetic apparatus of the two varieties of cotton was not significantly damaged. The yield of was less, which could be used as the reference amount of drip irrigation when water supply was insufficient.Among the varieties, Xinluzao 73 was more suitable for planting when the water supply of cotton fields in Northern Xinjiang was insufficient.
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