戴伊莎,贾会娟,熊瑛,刘帮艳,成欣,王龙昌.保护性耕作措施对西南旱地玉米田土壤有机碳、氮组分及玉米产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2021,(3):82~90
保护性耕作措施对西南旱地玉米田土壤有机碳、氮组分及玉米产量的影响
Impact of conservation tillage measures on maize yield, soil organic carbon and nitrogen components of maize field in rain\|fed region in southwest China
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2021.03.10
中文关键词:  保护性耕作  玉米田  秸秆覆盖  垄作  土壤碳氮
英文关键词:conservation tillage  maize field  straw mulching  ridge tillage  soil carbon and nitrogen
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31271673,31871583)
作者单位
戴伊莎 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Southwest University / Key Laboratory of Eco\|environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Ministry of Education / Engineering Research Center of South Upland Agriculture, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400716, China 
贾会娟 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Southwest University / Key Laboratory of Eco\|environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Ministry of Education / Engineering Research Center of South Upland Agriculture, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400716, China 
熊瑛 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Southwest University / Key Laboratory of Eco\|environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Ministry of Education / Engineering Research Center of South Upland Agriculture, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400716, China
College of Agriculture, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471003, China 
刘帮艳 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Southwest University / Key Laboratory of Eco\|environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Ministry of Education / Engineering Research Center of South Upland Agriculture, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400716, China 
成欣 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Southwest University / Key Laboratory of Eco\|environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Ministry of Education / Engineering Research Center of South Upland Agriculture, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400716, China 
王龙昌 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Southwest University / Key Laboratory of Eco\|environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Ministry of Education / Engineering Research Center of South Upland Agriculture, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400716, China 
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中文摘要:
      针对西南地区季节性干旱多发、土层浅薄、水土流失严重等问题,以“蚕豆/玉米/甘薯”旱三熟种植模式下玉米田为研究对象,设置平作+无秸秆覆盖(FT)、垄作+无秸秆覆盖(RT)、平作+半量秸秆覆盖(FH)、垄作+半量秸秆覆盖(RH)、平作+全量秸秆覆盖(FW)、垄作+全量秸秆覆盖(RW)6个处理开展田间试验,分析了玉米田土壤有机碳、氮组分对不同保护性耕作措施的响应规律。结果表明:土壤有机碳、全氮含量的土层分布特征均表现为0~10 cm>10~20 cm。同一生育期内,垄作和适量的秸秆覆盖均能增加土壤有机质含量,且能减少氮组分的流失;全量秸秆覆盖不利于土壤有机碳的增加与氮组分的固定。垄作较平作、秸秆覆盖较无秸秆覆盖更有利于提升土壤有机碳含量和减少土壤氮含量的损失。各处理中,RH处理对总有机碳、易氧化有机碳、颗粒有机碳、水溶性有机碳、全氮含量均能产生明显的促进作用,各组分在成熟期玉米田0~10 cm土层中的含量相较于移栽前分别显著增加5.1%、39.2%、38.5%、18.8%、8.7%。此外,RH能有效减缓水溶性氮的流失,其流失量为FT的45.57%。活性有机碳与总有机碳极显著正相关(P<0.01),可以表征总有机碳;玉米产量与土壤有机碳、氮之间存在正相关关系。垄作+半量秸秆覆盖(覆盖3 750 kg·hm-2蚕豆秸秆)在西南旱地能产生显著的增碳固氮效应,且具有一定增产效应,有利于保护农田生态环境、提高农业生态效益。
英文摘要:
      In view of the serious problems in southwest China with frequent seasonal drought, shallow soil layer, and soil erosion, basing on the “broad bean/maize/sweet potato” triple cropping system, the maize field was taken as the research object, and 6 treatments were set up for field trials including flat tillage + no straw mulch (FT), ridge tillage + no straw mulch (RT), flat tillage + half straw mulch (FH), ridge tillage + half straw mulch (RH), flat tillage + whole straw mulch (FW), and ridge tillage + whole straw mulch (RW). By analyzing the soil with organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content on the response regularity of different treatments, the results showed the soil distribution characteristics of soil organic C and total N content manifested as 0~10 cm>10~20 cm. In the same period of growth, ridge cropping and appropriate straw mulching increased soil organic C and reduced the loss of N components. Whole straw mulching was not conducive to the increase of soil organic C and N component fixation. Compared with the treatment FT, RH significantly promoted the total organic C, readily oxidized organic C, particulate organic C, dissolved organic C content, and the total N content. The content of each component in the 0~10 cm soil layer of the maize field at the mature stage increased by 5.1%, 39.2%, 38.5%, 18.8%, and 8.7% when compared with that of pre\|transplanting. In addition, RH effectively slowed down the loss of water\|soluble N, which was only 45.57% of FT. And the active organic C had a significantly positive correlation with the total organic C (P<0.01), which characterized the total organic C; and there was a positive relationship between maize yield, soil organic C and N contents. In conclusion, ridge tillage with half straw mulching (3 750 kg·hm-2 beans’ straw mulching) produced a more significant benefit of C and N in southwest rain\|fed region, which also boosted output and protected the farmland ecological environment, improving agricultural ecological benefits with popularization significance.
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