王嘉昕,高晓东,赵西宁,周艳清,吴普特.不同耕作措施对枸杞土壤水热动态、生长及果实产量与品质的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2021,(3):91~99
不同耕作措施对枸杞土壤水热动态、生长及果实产量与品质的影响
Effects of cultivation and mulch measures on soil hydrothermal dynamics, and growth, yield and fruit quality of Lycium Barbarum L.
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2021.03.11
中文关键词:  枸杞  耕作措施  土壤水热  生长参数  产量和品质
英文关键词:Lycium Barbarum L.  cultivation patterns  soil hydrothermal considtion  growth parameter  yield and quality
基金项目:国家重点研发项目(2017YFC0403600)
作者单位
王嘉昕 College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A & F University
Institute of Water\|saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China, Northwest A & F University 
高晓东 Institute of Water\|saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China, Northwest A & F University
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A & F University
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Science & Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
赵西宁 Institute of Water\|saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China, Northwest A & F University
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A & F University
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Science & Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
周艳清 College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A & F University
Institute of Water\|saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China, Northwest A & F University 
吴普特 Institute of Water\|saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China, Northwest A & F University
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A & F University
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Science & Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
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中文摘要:
      于2018年5—9月在青海省海西州德令哈市怀头他拉灌区以4 a生枸杞为对象,研究垄沟覆盖地布(MR,垄高10 cm、宽32 cm,沟宽22 cm)、平地覆盖地布(MF)及平裸地(CK)3种耕作覆盖措施对滴灌枸杞土壤水热动态、生长、果实产量与品质的影响。结果表明,针对试验地的干旱寒冷气候条件,垄沟覆盖地布措施与CK相比增温保墒效果显著,整个生长季0~40 cm土壤积温比CK增加4 755℃,10~110 cm土壤储水量提高了16%。同时,裸地处理日土壤蒸发速率明显高于地布覆盖处理,蒸发速率最大值出现在枸杞开花坐果期间,达4 mm·d-1,整个生长季CK的棵间土壤蒸发量较MR高40%, 但是累积蒸腾量显著低于MF和MR(P<0.05)。在整个生长季的多次测量中,株高和叶面积指数表现均为MR>MF>CK,但不同处理之间均无显著差异;在萌芽展叶和果实采摘初期,MR处理下的枸杞地径显著高于另外两个处理(P<0.05),然而之后各处理地径无显著差异。此外,在7月末至8月初(夏果采摘后秋果采摘前),出现了枸杞植株收缩的现象,表现为8月初枸杞株高、叶面积指数以及地径的观测值均出现减少。垄沟覆盖地布措施表现出良好的增产效果,MR两茬枸杞子的总产量达到1 312.1 7 kg·hm-2,较CK提高16%,果径、果长、单株产量均显著优于CK(P<0.05),并提高作物水分利用效率3%。但是耕作覆盖措施对枸杞子Vc含量、总糖含量等果实品质指标无显著性影响。综上所述,本研究表明垄沟覆盖地布措施显著改善土壤水热状况,提高了产量和水分利用效率,是一种适合干旱内陆河灌区的耕作覆盖措施。
英文摘要:
      A field experiment was conducted in Huaitou Tala Irrigation District, Delingha City, Haixi Prefecture, Qinghai Province from May to September of 2018. Four\|years old Lycium barbarum L. trees, which were planted in irrigation district were set as objectives in this study to investigate the effects of ridge\|furrow mulching planting pattern (MR, 10 cm ridge height, 32 cm ridge width, and 22 cm ditch width), flat mulching planting pattern (MF), and flat unmulched planting pattern (CK) on the soil hydrothermal dynamics, Lycium barbarum L. growth, and fruit yield and quality under drip irrigation condition. The results showed that compared with CK, MR had a significant effect in increasing soil temperature and soil moisture. During the whole growing period, the accumulated soil temperature of 0~40 cm was increased by 4 755℃ over CK, and the soil water storage of 0~100 cm was increased by 16%. At the same time, the daily soil evaporation rate of CK was significantly higher than that of mulching treatment, and the maximum evaporation rate occurred during the flowering period, reaching 4 mm·d-1. Total soil evaporation of CK was 40% higher than that of the MR, but the accumulated transpiration of CK was significantly lower than that of the MF and MR (P<0.05). In the whole growing period, the plant height and leaf area index were in an order MR>MF>CK, but there was no significant difference among different treatments. The ground diameter of Lycium Barbarum L. under MR was significantly higher than that of the other two treatments at the early stage of germination and fruit picking (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in ground diameter in the later seasons. In addition, from the end of July to the beginning of August, after summer fruit picking and before autumn fruit picking, Lycium Barbarum L. shrinkage phenomenon was observed, which was reflected by the decreased observed values of plant height, leaf area index, and ground diameter. The MR showed a good increase on the yield. The total yield of wolfberry of MR reached 1 312.17 kg·hm-2, which was 16% higher than that of CK, fruit diameter, fruit length, and yield per plant were also significantly higher than CK (P<0.05), and water use efficiency was increased by 3%. However, different treatments had no significant effect on fruit quality indices such as vitamin C content and total sugar content. In summary, this study showed that the MR significantly improved soil water and heat conditions, provided higher yield and water use efficiency, and was a suitable planting pattern for arid inland river irrigation areas.
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