郭志刚,李文芳,马宗桓,曹雪璟,毛娟,左存武,陈佰鸿.生物菌肥和钾肥配施对苹果钾素吸收及果实品质的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2021,(3):113~121
生物菌肥和钾肥配施对苹果钾素吸收及果实品质的影响
Effects of combined biological fertilizer and potassium fertilizer on potassium absorption and fruit quality of apple
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2021.03.14
中文关键词:  苹果  生物菌肥  钾肥  钾素吸收  土壤微生物数量  果实品质
英文关键词:apple  biological fertilizer  potassic fertilizer  potassium absorption  quantity of soil microorganisms  the fruit quality
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFD1000200);甘肃省科技重大专项(18ZD2NA006);甘肃省高等学校产业支撑引导项目(2019C11)
作者单位
郭志刚 College of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui, Gansu 741000, China 
李文芳 College of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
马宗桓 College of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
曹雪璟 College of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
毛娟 College of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
左存武 College of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
陈佰鸿 College of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
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中文摘要:
      为了研究生物菌肥和钾肥对苹果果实品质及生长发育的协同作用,以7 a生‘瓦里短枝’(Vallee spur Del)为研究对象,设置T1(K2O 420 kg·hm-2)、T2(生物菌肥2 520 kg·hm-2)、T3(生物菌肥2 520 kg·hm-2+K2O 294 kg·hm-2)、T4(生物菌肥2 520 kg·hm-2+K2O 420 kg·hm-2)、T5(生物菌肥2 520 kg·hm-2+K2O 546 kg·hm-2)和CK(不施肥)6个处理,研究了不同施肥处理对苹果钾素吸收、土壤酶活性、根际微生物数量及果实品质的影响。结果表明:(1)与T1相比,T3、T4及T5显著提高了果园钾肥农学效率、钾肥贡献率和钾肥偏生产力(P<0.05),但T4和T5差异不显著。(2)各处理不同器官中钾素累积量大小顺序依次为T5>T4>T3>T1>T2>CK,T4和T5差异不显著,但均显著高于其它处理(P<0.05)。(3)生物菌肥和钾肥配施后显著提高了土壤蔗糖酶、多酚氧化酶、碱性磷酸酶、脲酶活性和根际土壤细菌、放线菌及真菌的数量(P<0.05),但T3、T4及T5之间差异不显著(P<0.05)。(4)配施后显著提高了0~120 cm土层内根系活力(P<0.05),显著提高了果实的平均单果重、可溶性固形物含量、Vc含量及果实硬度(P<0.05),但T4和T5差异不显著(P<0.05)。(5)果实单果重、可溶性固形物含量及Vc含量均与土壤微生物数量和土壤酶活性呈显著正相关。综上,生物菌肥2 520 kg·hm-2+K2O 420 kg·hm-2是试验区合理的施肥量,能有效提高钾肥利用效率,提高土壤肥力和改善果实品质。
英文摘要:
      To study the synergistic effects of biological fertilizer and potassium (K) fertilizer on the quality, growth, and development of apple fruit, 7\|year\|old Vallee spur Del was selected as the research object. Six treatments, including T1 (420 kg·hm-2 of K2O), T2 (2 520 kg·hm-2 of biological bacterial fertilizer), T3 (2 520 kg·hm-2 of biological bacterial fertilizer + 294 kg·hm-2 of K2O), T4 (2 520 kg·hm-2 of biological bacterial fertilizer + 420 kg·hm-2 of K2O), T5 (2 520 kg·hm-2 of biological bacterial fertilizer + 546 kg·hm-2 of K2O), and CK (No biological bacterial fertilizer and potassium sulfate) were set up to study the effects of different fertilization treatments on K uptake, soil enzyme activity, rhizosphere microorganism quantity, and apple fruit quality. The results showed as follows: (1) T3, T4, and T5 significantly increased K agronomic efficiency, K contribution rate, and K partial productivity compared with T1 (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between T4 and T5. (2) The order of K accumulation in different organs was T5>T4>T3>T1>T2>CK. T4 and T5 had no significant difference but were significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.05). (3) The activities of soil sucrase, polyphenol oxidase, alkaline phosphatase, urease, as well as the number of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in rhizosphere soil significantly increased after combined application of biological bacterial fertilizer and K fertilizer (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference among T3, T4, and T5 (P<0.05). (4) The root activity in 0~120 cm soil layer, average single fruit weight, soluble solid content, Vc content, and fruit firmness were significantly increased (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between T4 and T5 (P<0.05). (5) The single fruit weight, soluble solid content and Vc content were positively correlated with soil microbial quantity and soil enzyme activity. In conclusion, the biological fertilizer of 2 520 kg·hm-2+K2O of 420 kg·hm-2 was a reasonable amount of fertilizer application in the test area, which effectively improved the utilization efficiency of Kfertilizer, soil fertility, and fruit quality.
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