刘强,穆兴民,王新民,张文,高鹏,赵广举,孙文义.长期不同施肥方式对旱地轮作土壤养分和作物产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2021,(3):122~128
长期不同施肥方式对旱地轮作土壤养分和作物产量的影响
Effects of different long\|term fertilization on crop yield and soil nutrients under rotation planting in arid region
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2021.03.15
中文关键词:  长期施肥  有机肥  化肥  土壤养分  作物产量  养分利用效率
英文关键词:long term fertilization  organic manure  chemical fertilizer  soil nutrients  crop yield  nutrient use efficiency
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41671285);中欧土壤-作物系统水资源管理创新研究平台(2017YFE0118100);国家重点研究计划专题计划(2016YFC0501707);甘肃省自然科学基金(18JR3RE247)
作者单位
刘强 College of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui, Gansu 741000, China Institute of Soil and Water ConservationChinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
 
穆兴民 Institute of Soil and Water ConservationChinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Institute of Soil and Water ConservationNorthwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
王新民 College of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui, Gansu 741000, China 
张文 College of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui, Gansu 741000, China 
高鹏 Institute of Soil and Water ConservationChinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Institute of Soil and Water ConservationNorthwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
赵广举 Institute of Soil and Water ConservationChinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Institute of Soil and Water ConservationNorthwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
孙文义 Institute of Soil and Water ConservationChinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Institute of Soil and Water ConservationNorthwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
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中文摘要:
      为明确黄土高原半干旱区不同施肥方式下旱地土壤养分和作物产量及其相互关系,筛选出农田最佳施肥管理措施,于2015—2018年进行田间试验,研究了9种不同施肥设置 \[有机肥配施磷肥(MP)、有机肥配施氮肥(MN)、磷钾肥配施(PK)、氮磷肥配施(NP)、种植作物不施肥(CK)、氮磷钾肥配施(NPK)、氮钾肥配施(NK)、有机肥(M)、有机肥配施氮磷肥(MNP)\]对作物产量和土壤养分含量的影响。结果表明:2015—2018年不同施肥处理对土壤养分含量有明显影响,其中,土壤有机碳含量增加以M处理最为显著,4个年份较CK分别提高了112%、107%、101%和103%。土壤速效氮含量增加以MN处理最为显著,4个年份较CK分别提高了155%、167%、157%和135%。土壤有效磷含量增加以MP处理最为显著,4个年份较CK分别提高了843%、833%、929%和935%。土壤速效钾含量增加以M处理最为显著,4个年份较CK分别提高了124%、126%、121%和113%。不同施肥对作物增产有着显著影响,以MNP处理下作物产量增加最为显著,2015—2018年较CK分别提高了81%、337%、320%和239%。不同施肥方式对作物产量可持续性指数(ISYI)差异显著,可持续性指数(ISYI)最高的是MNP处理,次之是MN处理,而可持续性指数最低的是CK处理。综合研究结果来看,有机肥与化肥配施能有效提高作物产量,补充土壤养分,调节养分释放强度和速率,满足作物整个生长期对养分需求,使作物产量年际间变幅小,获得稳产高产。
英文摘要:
      In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of long\|term fertilization on crop yield and nutrients with different fertilization treatments in a dryland crop rotation system on the Loess Plateau, and to facilitate the selection of the optimal farmland fertilization management approaches. Field experiments with nine fertilization treatments were carried out during 2015-2018. The different fertilization treatments increased soil nutrient content in the four consecutive years, with the M treatment exhibiting the most significant increase in soil organic carbon content at 112%, 107%, 101%, and 103%, in the four consecutive years, respectively, compared with the control (CK). The MN treatment exhibited the most significant increase in soil available nitrogen content, which increased by 155%, 167%, 157%, and 135%, respectively, compared with the CK. Furthermore, the MP treatment showed the most significant increase in soil available phosphorus content at 843%, 833%, 929%, and 935%, respectively, compared with the CK. In addition, the M treatment exhibited the most significant increases in soil available potassium at 124%, 126%, 121%, and 113%, respectively, compared with the CK. The different fertilizers significantly influenced crop yield; crop yield under the MNP treatment increased most significantly at 81%, 337%, 320%, and 239%, respectively, compared with the CK. Significant differences were obtained in the crop yield sustainability index among the different fertilization treatments, with the highest in the MNP treatment, followed by the MN treatment, and the lowest in the CK treatment. The findings of this study demonstrate that the combination of organic and chemical fertilizers improves crop yield, supplement soil nutrients, regulates the rate of nutrient release and its intensity, and meets the nutrient demands of crops over the entire growth period, as well as facilitates high and stable yields.
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