云文丽,贾成朕.河套地区食用向日葵干旱等级指标研究[J].干旱地区农业研究,2021,(3):218~223
河套地区食用向日葵干旱等级指标研究
Study on the drought classification index of edible sunflower in Hetao area
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2021.03.27
中文关键词:  向日葵  土壤相对湿度  作物生长参数  干旱等级指标  河套地区
英文关键词:sunflower  soil relative humidity  crop growth parameters  drought grade index  Hetao area
基金项目:内蒙古自治区科技计划项目(201802108);中国气象局国内外作物产量气象预报专项(2020);内蒙古自治区地方标准制修订项目(2019)
作者单位
云文丽 Inner Mongolia Meteorological Training Center, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010051, China 
贾成朕 Inner Mongolia Ecological and Agricultural Meteorological Center, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010051, China 
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中文摘要:
      建立系统性的向日葵干旱灾害指标,开展向日葵干旱灾害的监测、影响评估和节水灌溉服务,对河套地区防灾减灾和指导灌溉生产意义重大。本文在向日葵土壤水分控制田间试验研究成果的基础上,通过建立土壤相对湿度和作物生长参数之间的关系模型,得出了食用向日葵出苗~花序形成、花序形成~开花后一周、开花后一周~成熟3个生育阶段轻旱、中旱、重旱、特旱的等级指标。同时,利用农业气象常规观测站2005—2019年从向日葵播种到收获每月3次(8日、18日、28日)的土壤水分观测数据,分析每次灌溉前的土壤相对湿度对应干旱等级来判断实际旱情,通过是否进行实际灌溉来验证干旱评价结果的准确性。结果发现:根据土壤相对湿度确定的向日葵3个生育阶段发生轻旱的临界值分别为65%、70%和60%,发生中旱的临界值分别为55%、60%和50%,发生重旱的临界值分别为45%、50%和40%,发生特旱的临界值分别为35%、40%和30%。向日葵历史观测数据的验证结果也表明基于土壤相对湿度的干旱等级指标合理且能很好地应用实际灌溉指导。
英文摘要:
      It is crucial for preventing and mitigating drought damage and guiding irrigation production by establishing and monitoring edible sunflower drought disaster indicators to assess water\|saving irrigation services in Hetao area. In this study, we conducted the field experiments of manipulating soil moisture, using the relationship model between soil relative humidity index and crop growth parameters to assess the drought grade of sunflower in three maturity stages including Ⅰ: emergence to inflorescence formation, Ⅱ: inflorescence formation\|one week after flowering, and Ⅲ: one week after flowering to maturity. The drought grade index was classified as light\|, moderate\|, severe\|, and extreme\|drought. We also used the historical data from the agricultural meteorological observatory (2005-2019) to verify whether these drought indicators were reasonable and can be used in practical irrigation guidance, analyzing the soil relative humidity index before irrigations to determine the accuracy of upcoming drought events. We found that according to the soil relative humidity index, the critical values of light\|drought in the three growth stages of sunflower were 65%, 70% and 60%, respectively; the values of moderate\|drought were 55%, 60% and 50%, respectively; the values of severe\|drought were 45%, 50% and 40%, respectively; and the values of extreme\|drought were 35%, 40% and 30%, respectively. Furthermore, we used the historical data for verifying these drought indicators, suggesting that the drought grade index fit well with the results of manipulated experiments. Therefore, it is concluded that the index can be used in practical irrigation guidance.
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