马文旭,陈如男,刘新宇,李博浩,贾文宝,张严文,杨雁,赵千慧,曹东歌,于高波,魏金鹏.高粱枯萎病生防菌株筛选研究[J].干旱地区农业研究,2021,(3):237~244
高粱枯萎病生防菌株筛选研究
Screening of biocontrol bacteria against sorghum Fusarium wilt
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2021.03.30
中文关键词:  高粱枯萎病  生防菌株  抗氧化酶  土壤酶
英文关键词:sorghum wilt  biocontrol strain  antioxidant enzymes  soil enzyme
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31301769);黑龙江省自然科学基金(QC2018023);黑龙江省大学生创新创业训练项目“高粱枯萎病生防菌的筛选及防病机理的研究”(201910223056)
作者单位
马文旭 Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
陈如男 Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
刘新宇 Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
李博浩 Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
贾文宝 Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
张严文 Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
杨雁 Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
赵千慧 Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
曹东歌 Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
于高波 Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
魏金鹏 Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
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中文摘要:
      由半裸镰刀菌引起的高粱枯萎病是一种严重的土传病害,为了有效地抑制高粱枯萎病的发生,筛选出对该病害具有较强抑制活性的生防菌株。从黑龙江省大庆市土壤中分离出33种生防菌,采用平板对峙法从33种菌株中筛选出对半裸镰刀菌具有抑制作用的生防菌株,并进行盆栽高粱接菌试验,通过高粱枯萎病的病情指数与发病率调查,筛选出4种拮抗细菌Y+8、7、10+8-20、Y+6,其平板抑制率分别达到83.55%、85.87%、85.67%、89.33%;生防菌接菌高粱的枯萎病发病率分别为37.93%、30.77%、30.77%、42.33%,显著低于对照;病情指数分别为18.97、22.12、30.77、16.92。分子鉴定结果表明,这4种生防效果较好的拮抗菌分别为Aquamicrobium、短小芽孢杆菌(Bacillus)、短波单胞菌(Brevundimonas)、芽孢杆菌(Bacillus)。4种生防菌在高粱叶片中诱导了H2O2等活性氧信号的产生,显著提高了高粱相关抗氧化酶活性,包括超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、抗坏血酸(APX),并提高了防御酶苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)与多酚氧化酶(PPO)的活性。此外,4种生防菌在防治病害发生的同时,显著提高了土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、多酚氧化酶、纤维素酶的酶活性。综上所述,生防菌株Aquamicrobium、芽孢杆菌(Bacillus)、短波单胞菌(Brevundimonas)与芽孢杆菌(Bacillus)能够有效地增强高粱防御系统,增强土壤酶活性,抑制高粱枯萎病的发生,在高粱枯萎病生物防治中具有潜在的应用前景。
英文摘要:
      Sorghum Fusarium wilt is a serious soil borne disease. In order to inhibit the occurrence of sorghum blight effectively, it is necessary to screen for bio\|control strains with strong inhibitory activity to against the disease. Thirty\|three kinds of bio\|control bacteria were isolated from soil using the method of tablet confrontation in this study, which were infected to sorghum with Fusarium wilt in pot test. Through the sorghum blight disease index and the incidence of a disease, 4 kinds of antagonistic bacteria Y+8, 7, 10+8-20, and Y+6 were selected, with the inhibition rate of the tablet at 83.55%, 85.87%, 85.67% and 89.33%, respectively. The incidence of Fusarium wilt were 37.93%, 30.77%, 30.77% and 42.33%, respectively, which were significantly lower than the control group. The disease indexes were 18.97, 22.12, 30.77, and 16.92, respectively. The molecular identification results showed that the four kinds of antagonistic bacteria with better biocontrol effect were Aquamicrobium, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, and Bacillus. The four biocontrol bacteria induced the production of reactive oxygen species in sorghum leaves, such as H2O2, and improved the activity of antioxidant enzymes significantly, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbic acid (APX), and also enhanced the activity of defense enzymes, containing phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In addition, the activity of soil urease, phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, and cellulase were significantly induced by the four biocontrol bacteria. In summary, the biocontrol bacteria, Aquamicrobium, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, and Bacillus could effectively enhance the sorghum defense system, increase the soil enzyme activity, and inhibit the occurrence of sorghum Fusarium wilt, showing a potential application prospect in the biological prevention of sorghum Fusarium wilt.
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