郭丽琢,杨波,高玉红,牛俊义.缺氮胁迫阶段及施氮时期对油用亚麻干物质及氮素积累的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2021,39(5):40~49
缺氮胁迫阶段及施氮时期对油用亚麻干物质及氮素积累的影响
Effects of nitrogen deficiency stage and nitrogen application period on dry matter and nitrogen accumulation of oil flax
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2021.05.05
中文关键词:  缺氮时期  施氮时期  油用亚麻  干物质  氮积累量  产量
英文关键词:nitrogen deficiency stage  nitrogen application period  oil flax  dry matter accumulation  nitrogen accumulation  yield
基金项目:国家现代农业特色油料产业技术体系专项(CARS-14-1-16);甘肃省自然科学基金(1107RJZA160)
作者单位
郭丽琢 College of Agronomy, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Arid Land Crop Science, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
杨波 College of Agronomy, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Longnan Agricultural Technology Extension Station, Wudu, Gansu 746000, China 
高玉红 College of Agronomy, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Arid Land Crop Science, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
牛俊义 College of Agronomy, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Arid Land Crop Science, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
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中文摘要:
      通过砂培及土培试验,分别以6个氮素供缺阶段处理和6个氮肥基追比例处理,探讨了缺氮阶段及施氮时期对亚麻干物质及氮素积累、籽粒产量的影响。结果表明,和全生育期正常供氮(CK)相比,播种~枞形期缺氮(T1)造成的干物质积累抑制随枞形期后的持续复氮而渐次降低,且茎、叶干物质积累量随复氮而终末产生了等量补偿,而枞形期~现蕾期(T2)、现蕾期~盛花期(T3)、盛花期~成熟期(T4)、现蕾期~成熟期(T5)4个时段的氮胁迫造成的器官干物质积累量降低,终末仍为不足补偿;胁迫阶段(T1~T5)的籽粒产量分别较对照降低了18.02%、26.54%、35.06%、38.83%、48.00%。保证生殖生长阶段的氮素营养供给可避免35%~50%左右的减产损失。0.2 g·kg-1施用的氮肥,基肥比重占2/3以上时不利于氮素营养状况的改善及植株的生长,基肥施用量≤1/2、剩余肥料于枞形期或现蕾期一次或分两次施入,可使植株的氮素及干物质积累总量分别增加10.71%~37.50%和9.34%~22.02%;1/6基肥+1/3枞形期追肥+1/2现蕾期追肥的方式,较其他施肥方式(100%基肥、2/3基肥+1/3现蕾期追肥、1/2基肥+1/2现蕾期追肥、1/6基肥+5/6枞形期追肥)的氮素积累量、植株干物质量、籽粒产量分别提高7.17%~37.50%、7.89%~22.02%、9.59%~26.71%。综上,盛花期~成熟期缺氮对植株的干物质积累及产量抑制敏感程度最高,现蕾期前后追肥具有显著的补偿效应;基肥施用量≤1/3、剩余肥料于枞形期(或分茎期)、现蕾期分两次施入,并使现蕾期追肥占1/2左右,是符合油用亚麻需求特性的氮肥运筹方式。
英文摘要:
      Sand culture pot experiment and soil culture pot experiment were conducted to study the effects of nitrogen (N) deficiency stage and N fertilizer application period on dry matter accumulation, N accumulation and yield of oil flax. Six N supply or deficiency stage treatments and six N ratio treatments of base fertilizer to top dressing were set up in sand culture and soil culture, respectively. The results showed that, compared with normal N supply during the whole growth period (CK), the inhibition of dry matter accumulation caused by N deficiency in sowing\|fir shape stage (T1) gradually decreased with the continuous N resupplying after fir shape stage, and the dry weight of stems and leaves eventually produced equal compensation at maturity, while N deficiency in stage of fir shape~budding (T2), budding~blooming (T3), blooming~mature (T4), and budding~mature (T5) decreased the dry matter accumulation of all organs. When compared with CK, the grain yield of T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 reduced by 18.02%, 26.54%, 35.06%, 38.83%, and 48.00%, respectively. Ensuring N nutrient supply in reproductive growth stage avoided about 35%~50% yield loss. Under the same N fertilizer dosage of 0.2 g·kg-1 soil, more than 2/3 amount of basal fertilizer was not conducive to improving N nutrition and plant growth. Applying basal fertilizer less than 1/2, with the remaining fertilizer top dressed once or twice in fir\|shaped or budding stage increased total N and dry matter accumulation of flax plant by 10.71%~37.50% and 9.34%~22.02%, respectively. The 1/6 basal fertilizer + 1/3 top dressing in fir shape stage + 1/2 top dressing in budding increased N and dry matter accumulation, grain yield by 7.17%~37.50%, 7.89%~22.02%, and 9.59%~26.71%, respectively, compared with other fertilizing methods (i.e. 100% basal fertilizer, 2/3 basal fertilizer + 1/3 top dressing in budding, 1/2 basal fertilizer + 1/2 top dressing in budding, 1/6 basal fertilizer + 5/6 top dressing in fir shape stage). In summary, N deficiency in blooming to maturity stage was the most sensitive to dry matter accumulation inhibition and yield decrease, and top dressing before and after budding had a significant compensation effect. Applying basal fertilizer less than 1/3, with the remaining fertilizer top dressed twice in fir shape stage (or branching stage) and budding stage, and making more than 1/2 top dressing in budding was a more reasonable N applying method for oil flax.
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