高小峰,闫本帅,吴春晓,王国梁.长期施肥对黄土丘陵坡地农田土壤质量和谷子产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2021,(5):76~83
长期施肥对黄土丘陵坡地农田土壤质量和谷子产量的影响
Effects of long\|term fertilization on soil quality and millet yield on slope farmland in loess hilly areas
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2021.05.10
中文关键词:  长期定位施肥  氮磷配施  土壤质量  土壤酶活性  谷子产量
英文关键词:long\|term location fertilization  combined application of nitrogen and phosphorus  soil quality  soil enzyme activity  millet grain yield
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(K3010217050)
作者单位
高小峰 State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Agriculture on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China 
闫本帅 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China 
吴春晓 State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Agriculture on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China 
王国梁 State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Agriculture on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
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中文摘要:
      以坡地农田生态系统长期定位试验(1995—2019年)为基础,选取裸地(LD)、对照(CK,不施肥)、单施氮肥(N1、N2处理分别为:尿素55.2、110.4 kg·hm-2)、氮磷肥配施(N1P、N2P处理分别为:尿素+过磷酸钙55.2+90、110.4+90 kg·hm-2)6个处理,研究长期施肥对土壤质量、谷子产量的影响。结果表明:(1)与CK相比,长期单施氮肥土壤碱解氮含量提高了24.81%~39.92%;长期氮磷肥配施土壤有机碳、全磷、碱解氮和有效磷含量分别提高了7.82%~16.81%、58.18%、21.59%~22.89%、450.5%~660.3%,土壤pH值降低了0.04~0.08。(2)与CK相比,长期单施氮肥碱性磷酸酶(AP)活性提高了13.34%~19.43%;长期氮磷平衡施肥土壤的β-1,4-N-乙酰氨基葡萄糖苷酶与亮氨酸氨基肽酶(NAG+LAP)、葡萄糖苷酶(βG)活性分别显著提高了16.76%~71.01%、47.12%~59.94%。与裸地相比,长期轮作种植作物使βG、LAP+NAG、AP活性显著提高了68.74%~342.42%,N1P处理下酶化学计量比最接近1∶1∶1稳态。(3)与 CK 相比,N1P处理谷子生物量和产量增加了105.25%~230.05%。谷子产量与土壤全磷、有效磷呈极显著正相关,而与土壤pH值呈显著负相关。总之,长期施肥能显著提高黄土丘陵区坡耕地土壤质量和谷子产量,低氮磷配施(N1P)效果最好。
英文摘要:
      Based on the long\|term positioning experiment of sloping farmland ecosystem (1995-2019), bare land (LD), control (CK, no fertilization), single application of nitrogen fertilizer (N1,N2: urea 55.2 kg·hm-2 and 110.4 kg·hm-2), and combined application of nitrogen and phosphorus (N1P,N2P: urea + superphosphate 55.2+90 kg·hm-2 and 110.4+90 kg·hm-2) of 6 treatments were designed to research the effect of long\|term fertilization on soil quality and millet yield. The results showed that: (1) Compared with CK, the long\|term single application of nitrogen fertilizer increased the soil alkaline nitrogen content by 24.81%~39.92%. The long\|term combined application of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers increased the soil organic carbon, total phosphorus, alkaline nitrogen, and available phosphorus content by 7.82%~16.81%, 58.18%, 21.59%~22.89%, and 450.5%~660.3%, and the soil pH decreased by 0.04~0.08 units. (2) Compared with CK, long\|term single application of nitrogen fertilizer alkaline phosphatase (AP) enzyme activity increased by 13.34%~19.43%. In the long\|term nitrogen and phosphorus balanced fertilization soil, the enzyme activities of β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase and leucine aminopeptidase (NAG+LAP), and glucosidase (βG) were significantly increased by 16.76%~71.01%, 47.12%~59.94%, respectively. Planting millet significantly increased the activities of βG, LAP+NAG, and AP by 68.74%~342.42%. The stoichiometric ratio of enzyme in N1P treatment was closest to the steady state of 1∶1∶1. (3) Compared with CK, the biomass and yield of millet under N1P treatment increased by 105.25%~230.05%. The yield of millet was significantly positively correlated with soil total phosphorus and available phosphorus, and significantly negatively correlated with soil pH. In short, long\|term fertilization significantly improved the soil quality and millet yield of slope farmland in loess hilly areas, and the best outcome came from low nitrogen and phosphorus combined application (N1P).
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