齐鹏,王晓娇,焦亚鹏,郭高文,马娟娟,武均,蔡立群,张仁陟.施磷对陇中黄土高原春小麦耕层土壤磷组分及有效性的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2021,39(5):99~106
施磷对陇中黄土高原春小麦耕层土壤磷组分及有效性的影响
Effects of phosphorus application on phosphorus composition and availability of spring wheat topsoil on the Loess Plateau of Longzhong
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2021.05.13
中文关键词:  春小麦  耕层土壤  磷组分  施磷  陇中黄土高原
英文关键词:spring wheat  topsoil  phosphorus component  phosphorus application  Longzhong Loess Plateau
基金项目:甘肃省高校创新基金项目(2020B-135);甘肃农业大学青年研究生导师扶持基金(GAU-QNDS-201704)
作者单位
齐鹏 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Engineering Research Center for Agriculture Water\|saving, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
王晓娇 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
College of Management, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
焦亚鹏 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
郭高文 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
马娟娟 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
武均 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Engineering Research Center for Agriculture Water\|saving, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
蔡立群 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Engineering Research Center for Agriculture Water\|saving, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
张仁陟 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Engineering Research Center for Agriculture Water\|saving, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
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中文摘要:
      利用2017年设置在定西市李家堡镇麻子川村的长期定位施肥试验,设置4个施磷水平:P1(0 kg·hm-2)、P2(75 kg·hm-2)、P3(115 kg·hm-2)、P4(190 kg·hm-2),测定收获后耕层土壤(0~20 cm)无机磷组分(Ca2\|P、Ca8\|P、Al\|P、Fe\|P、O\|P、Ca10\|P)、有机磷组分(LOP、MLOP、MROP、HROP)。研究结果表明:土壤磷组分含量变化顺序为Ca10\|P> Ca8\|P> MLOP> O\|P> HROP> Fe\|P> Al\|P> Ca2\|P> MROP> LOP。随着施磷量的增加,Ca2\|P、Ca8\|P、O\|P、LOP、MLOP、MROP、HROP、有效磷、全磷含量增加,增幅为8.41%~56.95%;Al\|P、Fe\|P、Ca10\|P含量先增加后降低,最大值分别为43.45(P2)、37.64(P2)、341.63(P3)mg·kg-1,最小值分别为28.63、33.06、321.96 mg·kg-1。随着施磷量的增加,Ca2\|P、Ca8\|P和MLOP占比增加,增幅分别为28.00%、24.46%、6.37%;Al\|P、LOP先分别增加至6.00%(P2)、2.67%(P2)后减小至4.31%(P4)、2.11%(P4);Fe\|P、Ca10\|P、MROP、HROP减小,减幅分别为5.75%、12.64%、21.37%、6.75%;O\|P由9.17%(P1)先减小至8.08%(P3)之后增加至8.80%(P4);PAC(磷活化系数)增加,增幅最大为26.40%(P4);无机磷占全磷的相对含量和无机磷与有机磷之比先增大后减小,分别由增幅的80.41%、4.10%减小至76.32%、3.21%,有机磷占全磷的相对含量先减小至19.59%后增加至23.75%。土壤磷形态对有效磷的直接影响大小顺序为:Ca8\|P>Ca2\|P>MLOP>LOP>HROP>MROP>Fe\|P>Al\|P>O\|P>Ca10\|P。相关分析和逐步回归结果表明,Ca2\|P是陇中黄土高原春小麦农田土壤有效磷的最主要磷源,长期施磷肥主要通过提高可供作物直接利用的Ca2\|P、LOP和具有缓效作用的Ca8\|P、Al\|P、MLOP比例,降低土壤中难溶性Fe\|P、O\|P、Ca10\|P、MROP、HROP的比例从而增加有效磷的含量,进而提升了土壤潜在供磷能力。
英文摘要:
      This study was to examine the effect of phosphorus application on the distribution, transformation and availability of soil phosphorus components in order to provide a reference for the efficient use of phosphorus in farmland and soil nutrient balance in the dry farming area of the Loess Plateau in central Gansu. The study used the long\|term location fertilization experiment in Mazichuan Village, Lijiabao Town, Dingxi City in 2017, and set four phosphorus application levels (P1=0 kg·hm-2, P2=75 kg·hm-2, P3=115 kg·hm-2, P4=190 kg·hm-2). The Jiang Baifan-Gu Yichu method and Bowman-Cole method were used to analyze and determine the soil inorganic phosphorus (Ca2\|P, Ca8\|P, Al\|P, Fe\|P, O\|P, Ca10\|P) and organic phosphorus components (LOP, MLOP, MROP, HROP) in the cultivated layer (0~20 cm) after harvest. The results showed that the change sequence of soil phosphorus content was Ca10\|P>Ca8\|P> MLOP> O\|P> HROP> Fe\|P> Al\|P> Ca2\|P> MROP> LOP. With the increase of the amount of phosphorus applied, the content of Ca2\|P, Ca8\|P, O\|P, LOP, MLOP, MROP, HROP, available phosphorus and total phosphorus increased, and the increase rates were ranged from 8.41% to 56.95%. The contents of Al\|P, Fe\|P, and Ca10\|P first increased and then decreased, with the maximum values being 43.45 (P2), 37.64 (P2), 341.63 (P3) mg·kg-1 and the minimum values were 28.63, 33.06, 321.96 mg·kg-1, respectively. With the increase of phosphorus application rate, the proportions of Ca2\|P, Ca8\|P, and MLOP increased by 28.00%, 24.46%, and 6.37%, respectively, Al\|P and LOP first increased to 6.00% (P2) and 2.67% (P2), respectively, and then decreased to 4.31% (P4), 2.11% (P4); Fe\|P, Ca10\|P, MROP, and HROP decreased by 5.75%, 12.64%, 21.37%, 6.75%, respectively. O\|P decreased first from 9.17% (P1) to 8.08% (to P3) and then increased to 8.80% (P4). The maximum phosphorus activation coefficient increase was 26.40% (P4). The relative content of inorganic phosphorus in total phosphorus and the ratio of inorganic phosphorus to organic phosphorus were first increased to 80.41% and 4.10%, and then decreased to 76.32% and 3.21%. The relative content of organic phosphorus in total phosphorus first decreased to 19.59% and then increased to 23.75%. The order to the direct influence of soil phosphorus form on available phosphorus was: Ca8\|P>Ca2\|P>MLOP>LOP>HROP>MROP>Fe\|P>Al\|P>O\|P>Ca10\|P. Correlation analysis and stepwise regression results showed that Ca2\|P was the main source of available phosphorus in spring wheat farmland soils in the Loess Plateau of Longzhong. In summary, Ca2\|P was the most effective source of phosphorus in the plough layer of dry\|farming spring wheat on the Loess Plateau in central Gansu. Long\|term application of phosphate fertilizer mainly reduced the insoluble Fe\|P, O\|P, Ca10\|P, MROP and HROP in the soil, and increased the ratio of Ca2\|P, LOP available for direct use, and Ca8\|P, Al\|P, MLOP with slow effect, so as to improve the content of available phosphorus, which in turn increased the soil’s potential phosphorus supply capacity.
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