纪立东,柳骁桐,司海丽,孙权,王锐.生物炭对土壤理化性质和玉米生长的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2021,39(5):114~120
生物炭对土壤理化性质和玉米生长的影响
Effects of biomass charcoal on soil physicochemical properties and corn growth
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2021.05.15
中文关键词:  生物炭  玉米  减氮施肥  土壤性质  产量  经济效益
英文关键词:biomass charcoal  cron  reduced application of nitrogen fertilizer  soil properties  yield  economic performance
基金项目:宁夏回族自治区农业科技自主创新资金项目(NGSB-2021-11-07);宁夏农林科学院自立一二三产业融合发展项目(YES-2016-0908)
作者单位
纪立东 Agricultural Resources and Environment Institute, Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750002, China 
柳骁桐 Agriculture College, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
司海丽 Agricultural Resources and Environment Institute, Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750002, China 
孙权 Agriculture College, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
王锐 Agriculture College, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
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中文摘要:
      以玉米品种‘利禾1号’为试验材料,设计6个施肥处理,分别为空白对照(CK,不施肥);常规施肥处理(T1,N∶P2O5∶K2O=27∶12∶6);在常规施肥处理基础上减氮20%并分别增施生物炭,生物炭施用量分别为2.25 (T2)、4.50 (T3)、6.75 (T4)、9.00 t·hm-2(T5),研究生物质炭基施对宁夏扬黄灌区土壤理化性质和玉米生长的影响。结果表明:在常规施肥减氮20%的基础上,与T1相比, T2、T3、T4、T5处理的有机质含量分别显著增加27.06%、30.59%、37.65%、48.24%,速效钾含量分别显著增加10.84%、11.82%、20.20%、43.84%(P<0.05);随着生物质炭施用量的增加,土壤稳定性显著增强,其中T3、T4、T5的水稳性大团聚体(>0.25 mm)数量较T1分别显著增加55.35%,128.49%、133.50%(P<0.05);当生物质炭的施用量达到4.5 t·hm-2时,细菌数和总菌数达到最大值;土壤酶活性在生物炭施用量超过4.5 t·hm-2时显著增加,其中蔗糖酶活性在T4处理处达到最大,较T1显著增加了140.23%(P<0.05);另外T4处理的农艺性状表现最好,产量较T1增加了41.4%;施用生物质炭均能显著增加氮肥利用效率、氮肥农学效率、氮肥偏生产力,其中T4处理增加的最为明显,较T1处理分别增加38.02%、18.79 kg·kg-1和23.54 kg·kg-1。推荐常规施肥减氮20%配施生物炭6.75 t·hm-2 作为扬黄灌区玉米生物炭配施化肥的参考配比。
英文摘要:
      This study was to explore effects of biomass charcoal application on soil physicochemical properties and corn growth in the Yanghuang irrigation area of Ningxia. Based on the 20 % reduction of conventional nitrogen fertilization with different biochar application rates, a total of six fertilization treatments were designed. The treatments included blank control (CK), conventional fertilization treatment (T1: N∶P2O5∶K2O=27∶12∶6), and biochar application 2.25 t·hm-2 (T2), biochar application 4.50 t·hm-2 (T3), biochar application 6.75 t·hm-2 (T4), biochar application 9.00 t·hm-2 (T5). The results showed that on the basis of reducing nitrogen fertilizer by 20%, the application of biomass charcoal significantly increased soil organic matter, available nutrient content, and soil water-stable aggregates, and it also increased the number of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes and enzyme activity content. The fresh root weight, root tip number, branch number, total root length, root surface area, and total root volume of corn, as well as nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency, nitrogen fertilizer agronomic efficiency, and nitrogen partial productivity were also increased. In short, application of biomass charcoal improved soil physicochemical properties, promoted corn growth and increased yield. T2, T3, T4, T5 treatments significantly increased soil organic matter content, respectively by 27.06%, 30.59%, 37.65%, 48.24%, and the available potassium content by 10.84%, 11.82%, 20.20%, and 43.84% when compared with T1 (P<0.05). Increasing the application rates of biomass charcoal effectively improved the stability of the soil, and T3, T4, and T5 treatments significantly increased soil water\|stable macroaggregates (>0.25 mm) by 55.35%, 128.49%, and 133.50%, respectively, when compared with T1 (P<0.05). When the application rate of biomass charcoal reached 4.50 t·hm-2(T3), the number of bacteria and total bacteria reached the maximum. When the biochar application rate exceeded 4.5 t·hm-2, soil enzyme activities increased significantly and the content of invertase activity reached the maximum at T4 treatment, with a significant increase by 140.23% as compared to T1 (P<0.05). In addition, the growth of agronomic traits in T4 treatment was the best, and the yield increased by 41.4% when compared with T1. The application of biomass charcoal significantly increased nitrogen fertilizer efficiency, nitrogen fertilizer agronomic efficiency, and nitrogen partial productivity. Of which T4 treatment was the most obvious, with the increase by 38.02%, 18.79 kg·kg-1, 23.54 kg·kg-1, respectively, when compared with T1 treatment. Therefore, the 20 % reduction of conventional nitrogen fertilization combined with the application of biochar 6.75 t·hm-2 (T4) can be used as the best method for corn fertilization and biomass charcoal application in Yanghuang irrigation area.
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