闫治斌,王学,马明帮,秦嘉海.多功能生态肥对连作马铃薯土壤性质及其产量和效益的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2021,(5):121~128
多功能生态肥对连作马铃薯土壤性质及其产量和效益的影响
Effects of multifunctional ecological fertilizer on soil properties, yield and benefit of continuous cropping potato
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2021.05.16
中文关键词:  连作马铃薯  多功能生态肥  配方  施肥量  土壤性质  施肥效益
英文关键词:continuous cropping potato  multifunctional ecological fertilizer  formula  fertilizer rate  soil properties  fertilization benefit
基金项目:甘肃省拔尖领军人才专项(2019GSSKJT002);科技部国家星火项目(2011GA860023)
作者单位
闫治斌 Research Institute of Gansu Dunhuang Seed Industry Group Co., Ltd., Jiuquan, Gansu 735000, China 
王学 Research Institute of Gansu Dunhuang Seed Industry Group Co., Ltd., Jiuquan, Gansu 735000, China 
马明帮 Research Institute of Gansu Dunhuang Seed Industry Group Co., Ltd., Jiuquan, Gansu 735000, China 
秦嘉海 Hexi Institute of College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhangye, Gansu 734000, China 
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中文摘要:
      在甘肃省张掖市民乐县马铃薯连作10 a基地上,于2017—2019年采用田间试验方法,在筛选出多功能生态肥配方和施用量的基础上,研究了施用多功能生态肥与不施肥、施用传统化肥对土壤性质、马铃薯产量和效益的影响。结果表明:多功能生态肥原料间的主次效应(R)是:马铃薯营养剂(R=37.60)>抗重茬菌肥(R=33.91)>土壤结构改良剂(R=17.53)。多功能生态肥配方组合比例为:抗重茬菌肥∶马铃薯营养剂∶土壤结构改良剂=0.0036∶0.9936∶0.0028。多功能生态肥经济效益最佳施肥量为33.01 t·hm-2,经济效益最佳施肥量时的马铃薯理论产量为38.56 t·hm-2。施用多功能生态肥与施用传统化肥比较,土壤容重、pH值以及Hg、Cd、Cr、Pb含量分别降低了7.46%、7.12%、17.07%、28.07%、15.73%和17.80%;土壤总孔隙度、团聚体和饱和持水量分别增加了7.65%、18.67%和7.66%;土壤有机质、CEC以及碱解氮、速效磷、速效钾含量分别增加了8.84%、5.56%、0.26%、0.52%和1.62%;土壤真菌、细菌和放线菌数量分别增加了76.60%、25.78%和21.98%;土壤蔗糖酶、脲酶、磷酸酶和多酚氧化酶活性分别上升了53.66%、34.46%、57.14%和27.14%;马铃薯块茎质量、单株块茎质量、产量、增产值、施肥利润和肥料投资效率分别增加了5.14%、7.89%、7.82%、5 560.00元·hm-2、5 133.84元·hm-2和0.55元·元-1
英文摘要:
      Based on the formulation and application amount of multi\|functional ecological fertilizer in a potato continuous cropping field base in Minle County, Zhangye City, Gansu Province from 2017 to 2019, the effects of multi\|functional ecological fertilizer application, non\|fertilizer application and traditional chemical fertilizer application on soil properties, potato yield, and benefit were studied through field experiments. The results showed that the primary and secondary effects (R) among multi\|functional ecological fertilizer materials were potato nutrient (R=37.60) > anti\|cropping fungus fertilizer (R=33.91) > soil structure improvement agent (R=17.53). The formula combination ratio of multi\|functional ecological fertilizer was: anti\|cropping bacterial fertilizer 0.0036∶potato nutrient 0.9936∶soil structure conditioner 0.0028. The optimal application rate of multifunctional ecological fertilizer was 33.01 t·hm-2 for economic benefit, and the theoretical potato yield was 38.56 t·hm-2 for optimal application rate for economic benefit. Compared with traditional chemical fertilizer, soil bulk density, pH value, and contents of Hg, Cd, Cr, and Pb were decreased by 7.46%, 7.12%, 17.07%, 28.07%, 15.73%, and 17.80%, respectively. Total porosity, aggregates, and saturated water capacity increased by 7.65%, 18.67%, and 7.66%, respectively. The contents of soil organic matter, CEC, alkali\|hydrolyzed nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium increased by 8.84%, 5.56%, 0.26%, 0.52%, and 1.62%, respectively. Soil fungi, bacteria, and actinomycetes increased by 76.60%, 25.78%, and 21.98%, respectively. The activities of sucrase, urease, phosphatase, and polyphenol oxidase in soil increased by 53.66%, 34.46%, 57.14%, and 27.14%, respectively. Potatoes tuber weight, tuber weight per plant, yield, output value, fertilizer profit, and fertilizer investment efficiency increased by 5.14%, 7.89%, 7.82%, 5 560.00 Yuan ·hm-2, 5 133.84 Yuan ·hm-2, and 0.55 Yuan · hm-1, respectively.
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