张玉豪,姚素梅,孟丽,邓哲,黄玲.滴灌土壤基质势调控对红豆杉生理特性及次生代谢物含量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2021,39(5):129~137
滴灌土壤基质势调控对红豆杉生理特性及次生代谢物含量的影响
Effect of regulating soil matric potential under drip irrigation on physiological characteristics and secondary metabolite contents of Taxus chinensis
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2021.05.17
中文关键词:  土壤基质势  红豆杉  光合作用  渗透调节  黄酮  多糖
英文关键词:soil matric potential  Taxus chinensis  photosynthesis  osmotic adjustment  flavonoids  polysaccharide
基金项目:国家中医药公共卫生服务补助专项“全国中药资源普查项目”(财社\[2017\]183号)
作者单位
张玉豪 School of Life Science and Technology,Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, Henan 453003, China 
姚素梅 School of Life Science and Technology,Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, Henan 453003, China 
孟丽 School of Life Science and Technology,Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, Henan 453003, China 
邓哲 School of Life Science and Technology,Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, Henan 453003, China 
黄玲 School of Life Science and Technology,Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, Henan 453003, China 
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中文摘要:
      以盆栽太行红豆杉为材料,于2019和2020年通过将滴灌滴头正下方20 cm深处的土壤基质势分别设定为-10(W1)、-20(W2)、-30(W3)、-40(W4)、-50 kPa(W5)5个下限,分析不同土壤基质势对红豆杉生理特性及次生代谢物含量的影响。结果表明:(1)W2处理显著提升了红豆杉的光合能力,2019年和2020年W2叶片净光合速率分别比W5提升了98.18%和106.62%。另外,W2显著提升了红豆杉叶片的表观量子效率(AQE)和暗呼吸速率(Rd),2019年和2020年W2叶片AQE分别比W5增长了80.76%和26.32%,Rd分别增长了34.39%和42.12%。同时红豆杉叶片光饱和点(Lsp)和最大净光合速率(Pnmax)在2 a内均在W2达到最大值,2019年W2叶片LspPnmax分别为961.59 μmol·m-2·s-1和3.656 μmol·m-2·s-1,2020年分别为865.25 μmol·m-2·s-1和3.850 μmol·m-2·s-1。且W2叶片叶绿素a和总叶绿素含量最高,分别为2.59 mg·g-1和3.42 mg·g-1,因此W2有利于提升红豆杉的光合能力。(2)试验前期,各处理红豆杉叶片MDA含量无显著差异,可溶性蛋白含量在W3处理下达到最大值,分别比W1和W5处理增长了10.36%和14.56%。在试验后期,W4和W5处理的叶片MDA含量显著高于其他处理,且在W5处理下达到最大值,分别比W1、W2、W3和W4增长了30.34%、40.88%、34.32%、5.37%,可溶性蛋白含量在W2处理下达到最大值,分别比W1、W3、W4和W5提升了14.35%、11.39%、28.53%、47.31%。红豆杉对于短期水分亏缺有一定的抗性,长期水分亏缺时,红豆杉叶片细胞膜脂过氧化加剧。(3)土壤基质势显著调控了红豆杉叶片黄酮和多糖含量,2019年和2020年红豆杉叶片黄酮含量均于W3处理达到最大值,多糖含量在W2达到最大值。因此,将滴灌滴头正下方20 cm深处的土壤基质势下限设定为-20 kPa有利于提升红豆杉的光合能力、生理活性和叶片多糖含量,设定为-30 kPa有利于提升红豆杉叶片的黄酮含量。
英文摘要:
      In order to find out the effect of different soil matric potential on physiological characteristics and secondary metabolite contents of Taxus chinensis,experiments were carried out in 2019 and 2020 growth seasons. In this experiment,the Taihang Taxus chinensis grown in pots was used as model plant and the matric potential at the depth of 20 cm underneath the drip emitter was set as five lower limits of -10 kPa(W1), -20 kPa(W2), -30 kPa(W3), -40 kPa(W4) and -50 kPa(W5), respectively, by adjusting the dripping rate. The effect of different soil matrix potential on physiological characteristics and secondary metabolite contents of leaves during experiment were analyzed.The results showed that: (1) W2 significantly improved the photosynthetic capacity of Taxus chinensis. Compared with W5, the net photosynthetic rate of W2 leaves increased by 98.18% and 106.62% in 2019 and 2020, respectively.W2 also significantly increased the AQE and Rd of Taxus chinensis leaves. Compared with W5, the AQE of W2 leaves increased by 80.76% and 26.32% in 2019 and 2020, respectively, and the Rd increased by 34.39% and 42.12%, respectively.Meanwhile, the Lsp and the Pnmax of Taxus chinensis leaves reached the maximum valuein the W2 treatment in both years. The Lsp and Pnmax of leaves in W2 were 961.59 μmol·m-2·s-1 and 3.656 μmol·m-2·s-1 in 2019,and they were 865.25 μmol·m-2·s-1 and 3.850 μmol·m-2·s-1 in 2020, respectively. The chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll content of leaves in W2 were the highest, which were 2.59 mg·g-1 and 3.42 mg·g-1, respectively. Therefore, W2 was beneficial to enhance the photosynthetic capacity of Taxus chinensis. (2) There was no significant difference in the MDA content of Taxus chinensis leaves in the early stage of the experiment, and the soluble protein content reached the maximum value in the W3 treatment, which increased 10.36% and 14.56% compared with W1 and W5, respectively. The MDA content of W4 and W5 leaves was significantly higher than that of other treatments at the later stage of the experiment, and reached the maximum value in W5, which increased by 30.34%, 40.88%, 34.32% and 5.37%, respectively, compared with W1, W2, W3 and W4. The soluble protein content reached the maximum value in W2, which increased 14.35%,11.39%,28.53% and 47.31% compared with W1、W3、W4 and W5, respectively. Taxus chinensis has certain resistance to short\|term water deficit, and in long\|term water deficit, the cell membrane\|lipid peroxidation of Taxus chinensis leaves is intensified. (3) The contents of flavonoids and polysaccharides in the leaves of Taxus chinensis were significantly regulated by soil matrix potential. The flavonoids content in the leaves of Taxus chinensis reached the maximum in W3 in 2019 and 2020, and the polysaccharides content reached the maximum in W2.Therefore,keeping the soil matrix potential at the depth of 20 cm below the emitter at -20 kPa appeared to be optimal to improve the physiological activity and photosynthetic ability of Taxus chinensis and promote the accumulation of polysaccharides in leaves,and keeping the soil matrix potential at -30 kPa appeared to be optimal to promote the accumulation of flavonoids in Taxus chinensis leaves.
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