顾桂栋,窦超银,胡倩,吕国华.滴灌高频施肥条件下玉米适宜灌水量的试验研究[J].干旱地区农业研究,2021,(5):145~152
滴灌高频施肥条件下玉米适宜灌水量的试验研究
An experimental study on suitable irrigation amount of maize under drip irrigation and high frequency fertilization
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2021.05.19
中文关键词:  玉米  滴灌  高频施肥  灌水量  生长  水分利用效率
英文关键词:maize  drip irrigation  high frequency fertigation  irrigation amount  growth  water use efficiency
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目(51609208)
作者单位
顾桂栋 College of Hydraulic Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China 
窦超银 College of Hydraulic Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China 
胡倩 College of Hydraulic Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China 
吕国华 Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese academyof agriculture sciences, Beijing 100081, China 
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中文摘要:
      通过大田试验,在高频施肥条件下设置了低水(H1,0.56KcET0),中水(H2,0.8KcET0),高水(H3,1.04 KcET0)3个不同灌水量,研究风沙土滴灌灌水量对玉米生长、干物质积累和产量的影响。结果表明:H1处理土壤含水率长期低于60%的田间持水率,H2和H3处理土壤水分能长期保持在田间持水率的60%以上;灌水量对玉米生长有显著影响,表现为H2处理玉米株高在灌浆期和完熟期显著高于H1和H3处理,其中灌浆期比H1和H3处理分别高13.8%和10.8%,完熟期分别高12.9%和10.7%;H3处理的茎粗在拔节期~完熟期显著高于H1处理,拔节期H3处理的茎粗最大,为28.9 mm,比H1处理粗8.5%;H2处理的叶面积指数(LAI)分别比H1和H3处理高22.6%和16.7%;H2处理的叶绿素含量(SPAD值)在穗期和灌浆期显著高于H1和H3处理,其中穗期分别高13.8%和10.8%,灌浆期分别高12.9%和10.7%;地上部干物质量H2处理最大,达303.5 g,比H1和H3处理分别增加了15.4%和3.3%;灌水量对各单项产量构成性状的影响不显著,但H2处理穗重最重,达382.9 g,比H1和H3处理分别重30.8%和4.2%,产量和水分利用效率(WUE)从大到小依次为H2、H3、H1,H2处理的产量和WUE分别为12.3 t·hm-2和2.16 kg·m-3。在风沙土地区,低水处理会使玉米前期缺水,中、高水处理能为玉米提供适宜的水分条件,但高水处理降低了肥效。综上,风沙土地区玉米滴灌高频施肥条件下推荐灌溉水量为0.8KcET0
英文摘要:
      Through field experiment, three different irrigation amounts (low water: 0.56 KcET0, middle water: 0.8 KcET0, high water: 1.04 KcET0) were set under the condition of high frequency fertilization to study effects of different treatments on the growth,dry matter quality, and yield of maize. The result showed that soil moisture content of low water treatment (H1) was lower than 60% field capacity for a long time, and the soil water content of middle water (H2) and high water (H3) treatments kept above 60% of the field capacity for a long time. Irrigation quantity had a significant effect on maize growth. The plant height of H2 treatment was significantly higher than that of H1 and H3 treatment in filling stage and mature stage, that was 13.8% and 10.8% at filling stage, and 12.9% and 10.7% at mature stage,respectively. The stem diameter of H3 treatment from jointing stage to mature stage was significantly higher than that of H1 treatment. The stem diameter of H3 treatment in jointing stage was the largest, which was 28.9 mm, 8.5% thicker than that of H1 treatment. The mean value of leaf area index (LAI) of H2 treatment was 22.6% and 16.7% higher than that of H1 and H3 treatment, respectively. The chlorophyll content (SPAD value) of H2 treatment was significantly higher than that of H1 and H3 treatments at ear stage and filling stage, that was 13.8% and 10.8% at ear stage, and 12.9% and 10.7% at filling stage, respectively. The dry matter of the above\|ground part was the highest in H2 treatment, reaching 303.5g, which was 15.4% and 3.3% higher than that of H1 and H3, respectively. The effect of irrigation amount on the individual yield components was not significant, but H2 treatment had the heaviest ear weight, reaching 382.9 g, which was 30.8% and 4.2% heavier than that of H1 and H3 treatments, respectively. The yield and water use efficiency were H2, H3, H1 from high to low. The yield and water use efficiency of middle water treatment (H2) were 12.3 t·hm-2 and 2.16 kg·m-3. In sandy land areas, low water treatment caused maize short of water in the early stage, and treatments with medium and high water provided suitable water conditions for maize. However, the high water treatment reduced fertilizer efficiency. Therefore, combined with the test results, the recommended irrigation water amount was 0.8 KcET0 under the condition of high frequency fertilization of drip irrigation in aeolian sandy soil.
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