武育芳,杨官凯,曹行行,王晓东,张雪艳.不同基质下咸、淡水灌溉对番茄生长和品质的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2021,(5):153~159
不同基质下咸、淡水灌溉对番茄生长和品质的影响
Effects of brackish and fresh water irrigation on tomato growth and quality under different substrates
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2021.05.20
中文关键词:  微咸水  番茄  生物炭  蚯蚓粪  生长  品质
英文关键词:brackish water  tomato  biochar  earthworm compost  growth  quality
基金项目:宁夏回族自治区国际合作项目(2019BEH03001);宁夏回族自治区科技创新领军人才项目(KJT2017001);宁夏回族自治区青年拔尖人才培养工程项目(201701)
作者单位
武育芳 College of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
杨官凯 College of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
曹行行 College of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
王晓东 College of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
张雪艳 College of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
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中文摘要:
      设置草炭(P)、草炭+蚯蚓粪(PE)、草炭+生物炭(PB)3种栽培基质,以及微咸水灌溉(b)和淡水灌溉(f)两种灌溉水质,共6个处理,分析栽培基质和灌溉水质对番茄植株生长、光合荧光特性、果实品质和产量的影响。结果表明,各基质处理在淡水和微咸水灌溉下株高和茎体积相对生长率均无显著差异。与草炭处理相比,在淡水灌溉下PEf显著增加果实可溶性糖11.17%以及可溶性固形物19.84%,PBf处理显著增加总生物量32.01%和地上部干物质量32.21%;在微咸水灌溉下PEb、PBb均显著增加总生物量和地上部生物量,分别为49.41%、63.59%和54.04%、61.27%,且PEb显著增加光合速率13.2%和气孔导度381.75%,PBb显著增加光合速率、气孔导度、WUE、qP、ETR,分别为32.69%,71.94%,23.27%,58.87%、14.35%。在相同基质下,PEb相对PEf显著增加蒸腾速率49.29%、气孔导度222%和Fm 5.6%,PBb相对PBf增加果实Vc含量37.43%和可溶性糖6.25%。在微咸水灌溉下各基质处理产量低于淡水处理,但是相比草炭处理,草炭添加生物炭产量增加32.26%。综合分析表明,在相同基质下,Pb和PBb相对于淡水灌溉显著降低了综合得分,提高了PEb的综合得分,且微咸水灌溉下相对Pb处理,PEb、PBb均增加了综合得分。因此草炭添加生物炭和蚯蚓粪均有利于缓解微咸水胁迫,提高作物生物量,但根据隶属函数综合排名,在淡水和微咸水灌溉下,草炭添加生物炭处理对番茄生长效果均为最优。
英文摘要:
      This study was to explore the effect of different culture substrate conditions on tomato plant growth and quality under brackish water (b) and fresh water (f) irrigation. Three kinds of cultivation substrates of peat (Pf, Pb), peat + earthworm manure (PEf, PEb), and peat + biochar (PBf, PBb), and two kinds of irrigation water, brackish water irrigation (b) and fresh water irrigation (f), were combined into six treatments. Tomato plant growth, photosynthetic properties, fluorescence characteristics, fruit quality and yield were analyzed in this trial. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the relative growth rates of plant height and stem volume under fresh water and brackish water irrigation.Compared with peat treatment, PEf under fresh water irrigation significantly increased the soluble sugar and soluble solids by 11.17% and 19.84%, and PBf significantly increased the total biomass and shoot dry weight by 32.01% and 32.21%. Under brackish water irrigation, PEb and PBb significantly increased the total biomass and above\|ground biomass by 49.41%, 63.59% and 54.04%, 61.27%, respectively, and PEb significantly increased the photosynthetic rate by 13.2% and stomatal conductance by 381.75%. PBb significantly increased photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), WUE, qP, and ETR to 32.69%, 71.94%, 23.27%, 58.87%, and 14.35%, respectively. Under the same substrate, PEb significantly increased transpiration rate (Tr) 49.29%, stomatal conductance 222% and Fm 5.6% compared to PEf. PBb increased fruit Vc content by 37.43% and soluble sugar by 6.25% compared to PBf. The yield under brackish water irrigation was lower than that of freshwater treatment, but compared with peat treatment, the yield of peat with biochar increased by 32.26%.Comprehensive analysis showed that under the same substrate, brackish water reduced the comprehensive score in Pb and PBb, and increased comprehensive score in PEb. In addition, PEb and PBb improved comprehensive score under brackish water treatment compared to Pb. Therefore, the addition of biochar and earthworm feces to peat was beneficial to alleviate brackish water stress and improve crop biomass accumulation. Based on the comprehensive ranking of membership function, the addition of biochar with peat had the best effect on tomato growth under fresh water and brackish water irrigation.
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