赵晖,李尚中,樊廷录,赵刚,党翼,王磊,张建军,王淑英,程万莉,唐小明.种植密度与施氮量对旱地地膜玉米产量、水分利用效率和品质的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2021,(5):169~177
种植密度与施氮量对旱地地膜玉米产量、水分利用效率和品质的影响
Effects of planting density and nitrogen fertilizer rate on yield, water use efficiency and quality of dryland maize with film mulching
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2021.05.22
中文关键词:  旱地地膜玉米  种植密度  施氮量  产量  水分利用效率  品质
英文关键词:dryland maize with film mulching  planting density  nitrogen fertilizer rate  yield  water use efficiency  quality
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31660364);甘肃省现代农业科技支撑体系区域创新中心项目(2019GAAS45);甘肃省自然科学基金(21JR1RA361);国家玉米产业技术体系(CARS-02-55);科技部庆阳国家农业科技园区建设项目(QNKB3-4);甘肃省教育厅高等学校创新基金项目(2020A-225)
作者单位
赵晖 Gansu Agriculture Technology College, Lanzhou, Gansu 730030, China 
李尚中 Institute of Dryland Agriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
樊廷录 Institute of Dryland Agriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
赵刚 Institute of Dryland Agriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
党翼 Institute of Dryland Agriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
王磊 Institute of Dryland Agriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
张建军 Institute of Dryland Agriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
王淑英 Institute of Dryland Agriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
程万莉 Institute of Dryland Agriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
唐小明 Institute of Dryland Agriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
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中文摘要:
      试验以旱地地膜玉米‘先玉335’为材料,采用二因素随机区组设计,种植密度设3个水平,分别为:4.5×104株·hm-2(低密度:D4.5)、6.0×104株·hm-2(中密度:D6.0)和7.5×104株·hm-2(高密度:D7.5);施氮量(缓释氮肥)设4个水平:0 kg·hm-2(N0)、150 kg·hm-2(N150)、300 kg·hm-2(N300)和450 kg·hm-2(N450),于2017年(伏旱年)和2018年(丰水年)测定了不同处理的叶绿素相对含量(SPAD值)、叶面积指数(LAI)、产量和主要品质指标,以及播前和收获0~2 m土层土壤贮水量,结合玉米籽粒产量分析其水分利用效率(WUE)。结果表明,增施氮肥对玉米的SPAD值、LAI、百粒重、穗粒数、产量、WUE、蛋白质和容重总体表现为正向调控作用,N450处理平均分别为55.1、2.57、34.7 g、649.9粒、12 652.7 kg·hm-2、25.5 kg·hm-2·mm-1、10.11%和740.1 g·L-1,较N0依次提高18.5%、24.5%、13.4 %、14.0%、31.2%、20.9%、29.3%和7.4 g·L-1;对脂肪和淀粉的积累表现为负向调控,对收获指数(HI)影响不显著(P>0.05)。增加种植密度对LAI、产量、WUE、淀粉和脂肪的积累总体表现为正向调控作用,D7.5处理分别为2.70、13 022.5 kg·hm-2、26.4 kg·hm-2·mm-1、73.6%和3.66%,较D4.5分别提高33.7%、25.8%、18.9%、1.4%和3.1%,对SPAD值、穗粒数、百粒重、蛋白质含量和容重总体表现为负向调控作用,不同密度间HI变化因降水年型而异。同时,不管降水年型如何,种植密度与施氮量互作对玉米SPAD值、LAI、穗粒数、百粒重等群体质量指标和产量与WUE影响达显著水平(P<0.05)。可见,旱作区玉米产量、WUE和品质等受自然降水、种植密度、施氮量及其互作效应等多种因素的共同制约。在本试验实施区域(年降水量500 mm左右),种植密度为7.5×104株·hm-2和施氮量(纯氮)150~300 kg·hm-2组合下,可使玉米产量、水分利用效率和品质同步提高。
英文摘要:
      The field experiment took the dry land film mulching maize ‘Xianyu 335’ as the material, adopted the two\|factor randomized block design, with three levels of planting density: 4.5×104 plants·hm-2 (low density: D4.5), 6.0×104 plants·hm-2(medium density: D6.0), and 7.5×104 plants·hm-2 (high density: D7.5), and four levels of nitrogen fertilizer rate including 0 kg·hm-2 (N0),150 kg·hm-2 (N150), 300 kg·hm-2 (N300), and 450 kg·hm-2 (N450). Different treatments were compared to determine the soil moisture in 0~2 m depths before sowing and harvest, SPAD value, leaf area index (LAI), grain yield, WUE, and main quality index of maize in 2017 (summer drought year) and 2018 (wet year). The results showed that the increase of nitrogen fertilizer rate increased SPAD value, LAI, 100-grain weight, grain number per spike, yield, WUE, content of protein and volume weight. The average values of N 450 treatment were 55.1, 2.57, 34.7 g, 649.9 grain number, 12 652.7 kg·hm-2, 25.5 kg·hm-2·mm-1, 10.11%, and 740.1 g·L-1, respectively, and these values increased by 18.5%, 24.5%, 13.4%,14.0%, 31.2%, 20.9%, 29.3%, and 7.4 g·L-1 compared with N0. The accumulation of fat and starch was negatively regulated by increasing nitrogen fertilizer, but there was no significant difference in harvest index (HI) (P>0.05). The increase of planting density increased LAI, yield, WUE, and content of starch and fat, and the average values of D7.5 treatment were 2.70, 13 022.5 kg·hm-2, 26.4 kg·hm-2·mm-1, 73.6%, and 3.66%, respectively, and these values increased by 33.7%, 25.8%, 18.9%, 1.4%, and 3.1% compared with D4.5. The increase of planting density had a negative effect on SPAD, grain number per spike, 100-grain weight, protein content, and volume weight. The change trend of HI among different densities was different according to the precipitation. At the same time, regardless of the annual precipitation, the interaction effects of planting density and nitrogen fertilizer rate on the population quality indexes (such as SPAD value, LAI, grain number per spike, 100-grain weight, etc.), yield and WUE were significant (P<0.05). In other words, the yield, WUE, and quality of dryland maize were restricted by precipitation, planting density, nitrogen fertilizer rate, and their interaction effects. In this experimental area (annual precipitation is about 500 mm), yield, WUE, and quality of maize were improved simultaneously under the combination of planting density of 7.5×104 plants·hm-2, and the nitrogen fertilizer rate (pure nitrogen) of 150~300 kg·hm-2.
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