马春梅,吴雪琴,李江余,田阳青,赵强.外源调节剂组合喷施对化学打顶棉花的调控效应[J].干旱地区农业研究,2021,(5):193~198
外源调节剂组合喷施对化学打顶棉花的调控效应
Regulation effects of different combinations of exogenous substances on chemical topping cotton
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2021.05.25
中文关键词:  棉花  外源调节剂  组合喷施  干物质积累  产量  品质
英文关键词:cotton  exogenous substances  combined spraying  dry matter accumulation  yield  quality
基金项目:新疆生产建设兵团科技攻关项目 “棉花化学打顶整枝综合配套技术集成与示范”(2018AB039)
作者单位
马春梅 College of Agriculture, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Engineering Research Centre of Cotton, Ministry of Education, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830000, China 
吴雪琴 College of Agriculture, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Engineering Research Centre of Cotton, Ministry of Education, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830000, China 
李江余 College of Agriculture, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Engineering Research Centre of Cotton, Ministry of Education, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830000, China 
田阳青 College of Agriculture, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Engineering Research Centre of Cotton, Ministry of Education, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830000, China 
赵强 College of Agriculture, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Engineering Research Centre of Cotton, Ministry of Education, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830000, China 
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中文摘要:
      为探究不同外源调节剂组合喷施对棉花生长发育和产量品质的调控效应,于2019―2020年分别在新疆昌吉、库尔勒以‘闫棉67’为材料,设置复硝酚钠15 g·hm-2(AU1),复硝酚钠15 g·hm-2+苯肽胺酸 75 g·hm-2(AU2),复硝酚钠15 g·hm-2+ 苯肽胺酸 75 g·hm-2+调环酸钙 30 g·hm-2(AU3)3种外源调节剂组合,以清水为对照(CK),通过随机区组试验,分析打顶前后各喷施一次外源调节剂后棉花株高、果枝数、叶绿素含量、干物质累积及分配、产量、品质等指标的变化。结果表明,3种外源调节剂组合均可有效调节棉花株高,提高棉花果枝数、叶绿素含量、干物质积累量和产量,其中AU3、AU2、AU1处理的2 a平均果枝数较CK分别增加了4.48%、7.68%、8.51%;外源调节剂对棉花生殖生长的调节作用大于营养生长,AU3、AU2、AU1处理的2 a平均生殖器官质量(蕾、花、铃)较CK分别增加23.58%、19.38%、13.46%。棉花产量随外源调节剂组合种类增加而增加,其中处理AU3较CK处理增产率最高,增产率2 a平均为15.84%,仅在2019年显著提高棉花衣分,较CK增加2.30%,但对纤维品质无影响。因此复硝酚钠15 g·hm-2+苯肽胺酸 75 g·hm-2+调环酸钙 30 g·hm-2组合的调控效果最佳。
英文摘要:
      In 2019-2020, ‘Yan Cotton 67’ was used as a material in Changji and Korla, Xinjiang, respectively, to explore the regulatory effects of different combinations of exogenous substances on growth, development, yield, and quality of the cotton. Three combinations of exogenous substances of compound sodium nitrophenolate 15 g·hm-2 (AU1), compound sodium nitrophenolate 15 g·hm-2+Phthalanillic acid 75 g·hm-2 (AU2), and compound sodium nitrophenolate 15 g·hm-2+ Phthalanillic acid 75 g·hm-2+ Prohexadione calcium 30 g·hm-2 (AU3) were used as treatment groups. Water was used as control group (CK). The changes of plant height, number of fruit branches, chlorophyll content, dry matter accumulation and distribution, yield, and quality of cotton after spraying exogenous substances before and after topping were recorded and analyzed by random block experiment. The results showed that three combinations of exogenous substances effectively adjusted the height of cotton plant, and improved the number of fruit shoots, chlorophyll content, dry matter accumulation and yield of cotton, of which the average two\|year fruit shoots of AU3, AU2, and AU1 increased by 4.48%, 7.68% and 8.51%, respectively, when compared with CK. The regulatory effect of exogenous substances on cotton reproductive growth was greater than that of vegetative growth, the two\|year average reproductive organ mass (buds, flowers, and bolls) treated by AU3, AU2, and AU1 increased by 23.58%, 19.38%, and 13.46% compared with CK, respectively. Cotton yield increased with the increase of exogenous regulator combination types, among which AU3 had the highest yield increase rate as compared with CK, and the average yield increase rate for 2 years was 15.84%. The cotton lint percentage of AU3 was significantly increased only in 2019, which was 2.30% higher than that of CK, but had no effect on fiber quality. Therefore, the combination of compound sodium nitrophenolate 15 g·hm-2+ Phthalanillic acid 75 g·hm-2+ Prohexadione calcium 30 g·hm-2 was the best option.
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