孙明雪,张玉霞,夏全超,王显国,张庆昕,刘庭玉,张永亮.钾肥种类及用量对低温胁迫下苜蓿根颈糖类物质含量及抗寒性的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2022,40(5):62~70
钾肥种类及用量对低温胁迫下苜蓿根颈糖类物质含量及抗寒性的影响
Effects of potash fertilizer types and rates on alfalfa root crown saccharides content and cold resistance under low temperature stress
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2022.05.07
中文关键词:  苜蓿  根颈  钾肥种类  糖类物质  抗寒性
英文关键词:alfalfa  root crown  types of potash fertilizer  saccharides  cold resistance
基金项目:内蒙古自治区自然科学研究基金(2020MS03081);国家自然科学基金(31960352);内蒙古自治区科技计划项目(2021GG0109)
作者单位
孙明雪 内蒙古民族大学农学院内蒙古自治区饲用作物工程技术研究中心内蒙古 通辽 028041 
张玉霞 内蒙古民族大学农学院内蒙古自治区饲用作物工程技术研究中心内蒙古 通辽 028041 
夏全超 内蒙古民族大学农学院内蒙古自治区饲用作物工程技术研究中心内蒙古 通辽 028041 
王显国 中国农业大学草业科学与技术学院北京 028000 
张庆昕 内蒙古民族大学农学院内蒙古自治区饲用作物工程技术研究中心内蒙古 通辽 028041 
刘庭玉 内蒙古民族大学农学院内蒙古自治区饲用作物工程技术研究中心内蒙古 通辽 028041 
张永亮 内蒙古民族大学农学院内蒙古自治区饲用作物工程技术研究中心内蒙古 通辽 028041 
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中文摘要:
      为探讨钾肥种类及用量对苜蓿越冬器官抗寒性的影响及根颈糖类保护物质代谢的生理机制,本研究对‘北极熊’紫花苜蓿(M.sativa ‘Gibraltar’)施用KCl、K2SO4和KH2PO4 3种钾肥,设置100、200、300 kg·hm-2K2O(分别用K1、K2和K3表示)3个施用量,以不施钾肥为对照(CK),于封冻前期挖取苜蓿越冬器官模拟低温冷冻胁迫处理(4℃、-10℃、-20℃和 -30℃),测定根颈活力、可溶性糖、蔗糖、果糖和淀粉含量。结果表明,随着低温冷冻胁迫温度的降低,KCl、K2SO4和KH2PO4处理的苜蓿根颈活力和淀粉含量表现为持续降低的变化趋势,在-30℃下达到最小值,且与4℃处理呈显著差异(P<0.05),分别较4℃处理降低了86.25%~91.59%和45.47%~66.07%;可溶性糖、蔗糖和果糖含量则表现为先升高后降低的变化趋势,且均在-20℃下达到最大值,分别达到431.00~513.93 mg·g-1、235.23~329.05 mg·g-1和185.75~243.79 μg·g-1。随着钾肥施用量的增加,KCl、K2SO4和KH2PO4处理的苜蓿根颈活力、可溶性糖、蔗糖、果糖和淀粉含量均表现为先升高后降低的趋势;且在不同低温胁迫处理下以K2SO4处理效果最明显,并且在施用量为200 kg·hm-2K2O时,苜蓿根颈活力、可溶性糖、蔗糖、果糖和淀粉含量均与CK差异显著(P<0.05),分别较CK增长了56.03%~197.26%、16.38%~48.77%、24.13%~46.22%、30.53%~59.95%和35.73%~67.87%。因此,科尔沁沙地建植苜蓿宜施用K2SO4种类钾肥,建议施用量为200 kg·hm-2K2O,更有利于提高苜蓿越冬器官的抗寒性。
英文摘要:
      This study applied 3 types of KCl, K2SO4 and KH2PO4 potash fertilizers to alfalfa (M.sativa ‘Gibraltar’) to explore the effects of potash fertilizer types and dosages on cold resistance of alfalfa overwintering organs and the physiological mechanism of carbohydrate protection. Three application rates including 100 kg·hm-2K2O, 200 kg·hm-2K2O and 300 kg·hm-2K2O (indicated by K1, K2 and K3, respectively), and the control (CK) group without potash fertilizer were used. The overwintering organs of alfalfa were excavated in the pre\|freezing period to simulate low temperature freezing stress (4℃,-10℃,-20℃ and -30℃), and the root crown vitality, soluble sugar, sucrose, fructose and starch content were measured. With the decrease of low temperature and freezing stress, the root crown vitality and starch content of alfalfa treated with KCl, K2SO4 and KH2PO4 showed a continuous decreasing trend, with minimum value reaching at -30℃. The root crown activity and starch content of alfalfa treated at 4℃ were significantly different, which were 86.25%~91.59% and 45.47%~66.07% lower than those treated at 4℃, respectively. The content of soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, and all reached the maximum at -20℃, and they were 431.00~513.93 mg·g-1, 235.23~329.05 mg·g-1 and 185.75~243.79 μg·g-1, respectively. With the increase of the amount of potash fertilizer, the root crown vitality, soluble sugar, sucrose, fructose, and starch content of alfalfa treated with 3 potash fertilizers of KCl, K2SO4, and KH2PO4 showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, and under different low temperature stress treatments, the effect of K2SO4 treatment on alfalfa root crown vitality, soluble sugar, sucrose, fructose, and starch content was the most obvious. When the application rate was 200 kg·hm-2 K2O, the alfalfa root crown vitality, soluble sugar, sucrose, fructose, and starch content were significantly different from CK (P<0.05), and compared with CK, it increased by 56.03%~197.26%, 16.38%~48.77%, 24.13%~46.22%, 30.53%~59.95% and 35.73%~67.87%, respectively. It indicated that the application of K2SO4 with a dosage of 200 kg·hm-2K2O was more conducive to regulating the osmotic potential of alfalfa root crown cells, lowering the freezing point of cytoplasm, protecting biofilm, and improving the cold resistance of alfalfa overwintering organs.
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