杨昊晟,马永胜,胡笑涛,唐文政,陈滇豫,王文娥,周始威,杜敬斌.种植年限对渭北旱塬苹果园土壤孔隙结构及水力特征的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2022,40(5):94~104
种植年限对渭北旱塬苹果园土壤孔隙结构及水力特征的影响
Effects of different planting years on soil pore structure and hydraulic characteristics of apple orchards in the Arid Area of Northern Weihe River Basin
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2022.05.11
中文关键词:  苹果园  种植年限  土壤孔隙结构  土壤水力特征  渭北旱塬
英文关键词:apple orchard  planting years  soil pore structure  soil hydraulic characteristics  Arid Area of Northern Weihe River Basin
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0201508)
作者单位
杨昊晟 西北农林科技大学旱区农业水土工程教育部重点实验室陕西 杨凌 712100 
马永胜 延安市果业研究发展中心陕西 洛川 727400 
胡笑涛 西北农林科技大学旱区农业水土工程教育部重点实验室陕西 杨凌 712100 
唐文政 西北农林科技大学旱区农业水土工程教育部重点实验室陕西 杨凌 712100 
陈滇豫 西北农林科技大学旱区农业水土工程教育部重点实验室陕西 杨凌 712100 
王文娥 西北农林科技大学旱区农业水土工程教育部重点实验室陕西 杨凌 712100 
周始威 西北农林科技大学旱区农业水土工程教育部重点实验室陕西 杨凌 712100 
杜敬斌 延安市果业研究发展中心陕西 洛川 727400 
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中文摘要:
      为研究不同种植年限对苹果园土壤孔隙结构及其土壤水力特性的影响,采用时空转换的方法,选取渭北旱塬2 a、13 a及33 a苹果园开展土壤结构与水力特征测定,利用压汞法获取原状土壤孔隙结构特征。以20 cm及40 cm为界将果园0~100 cm土壤划分为耕作表土扰动层、潜在犁底层与心土层。结果表明:渭北旱塬苹果园20~40 cm土壤容重较高、导水能力差且水分对作物有效性较低,有形成犁底层的可能,且随植果年龄增加果园土壤容重呈增加趋势;同一果园中大孔隙(>75 μm)与中孔隙(30~75 μm)土壤百分含量最大值出现在表土层,占比分别为7.63%~10.32%及10.94%~13.14%;微孔隙(5~30 μm)土壤最大百分含量出现在心土层,占比为30.60%~47.85%;极微孔隙(0.1~5 μm)与超微孔隙(<0.1 μm)土壤含量最高值出现在潜在犁底层,占比分别达37.36%~52.55%及13.15%~19.08%。在频繁受到耕作扰动的表土层,2 a、13 a及33 a果园土壤之间各级孔隙占比非常接近;在不易受到耕作扰动的心土层,大孔隙与中孔隙土壤都表现出随耕作种植年限的增加而增加的趋势。土壤容重与其大孔隙含量呈显著负相关,与超微、极微孔隙土壤含量呈正相关,饱和导水率与容重呈显著负相关;5~30 μm微孔在土壤的导水及持水方面均有重要作用,其比表面积与田间持水量呈显著正相关,其孔体积分数与饱和导水率呈显著正相关;VG模型参数n与土壤大孔隙及中孔隙含量呈显著负相关。随耕作种植年限增加,果园土壤有机质含量每5 a降低0.425 g·kg-1,田间持水量每5 a降低0.8% cm3·cm-3。研究建立的土壤水力参数回归预测模型可为苹果园高效用水提供参考。
英文摘要:
      Spatial time\|exchange method was used in this study to determine soil pore structure and hydraulic characteristics in 2 a, 13 a, and 33 a orchards in the Arid Area of Northern Weihe River Basin. Mercury intrusion method was used to obtain the characteristics of soil situ pore structure. The 0~100 cm soil profiles was divided into surface soil layer, potential plough layer and subsoil layer at the boundary of 20 cm and 40 cm. In potential plough layer, the soil bulk density was higher, the water conductivity was poorer, and the water availability to crops decreased, which was possible to form plow bottom.The bulk density increased with the increase of planting years. In the same orchard: the percentage of macropore(>75 μm) and mesopore(30~75 μm) were highest in surface soil layer, accounting for 7.63%~10.32% and 10.94%~13.14% respectively; the percentage of micropore(5~30 μm) was highest in subsoil layer, accounting for 30.60%~47.85%; and the percentage of ultramicropore (0.1~5 μm)and cryptopore(<0.1 μm)were highest in potential plough layer, accounting for 37.36%~52.55% and 13.15%~19.08% respectivley. In the surface soil layer, which was disturbed frequently by tillage, the ratio of pores in different size was very close among 2 a, 13 a and 33 a orchard. In the subsoil layer, which was not easy to be disturbed by tillage, both macropores and mesopores showed a trend of increasing with the increase of tillage years. Soil bulk density was negatively correlated with macropore content and positively correlated with ultramicropore and cryptopore. Saturated conductivity was negatively correlated with soil bulk density. Micropores(5~30 μm) played an important role in both soil water conduction and holding, which specific surface area was significantly positively correlated with field capacity, and pore volume fraction was significantly positively correlated with saturated water conductivity.VG model parameter n was significantly negatively correlated with macropore and mesopore content. With the increase in planting years, soil organic matter content decreased by 0.425 g·kg-1 every 5 years, and field capacity decreased by 0.8% cm3·cm-3 every 5 years. The regression prediction of soil water conservancy parameters established in this study can provide a reference for efficient water use in apple orchards.
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