马新超,轩正英,李玉,常娇,高源,房健,谭占明,王旭峰.沙培黄瓜生长对水氮耦合效应的响应[J].干旱地区农业研究,2022,40(5):173~181
沙培黄瓜生长对水氮耦合效应的响应
Coupling effects of water and nitrogen on growth of sand cultivation cucumber
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2022.05.19
中文关键词:  水氮耦合  黄瓜  砂培  干物质积累  产量
英文关键词:water and nitrogen coupling  cucumber  sand cultivation  accumulation of dry matter  yield
基金项目:南疆重点产业支撑计划项目(2019DB001);新疆生产建设兵团科技攻关项目(2018DB003);塔里木大学研究生创新训练项目(TDGRI202023)
作者单位
马新超 塔里木大学园艺与林学学院新疆 阿拉尔 843300
塔里木大学南疆特色果树高效优质栽培与深加工技术国家地方联合工程实验室新疆 阿拉尔 843300 
轩正英 塔里木大学园艺与林学学院新疆 阿拉尔 843300
塔里木大学南疆特色果树高效优质栽培与深加工技术国家地方联合工程实验室新疆 阿拉尔 843300 
李玉 塔里木大学园艺与林学学院新疆 阿拉尔 843300
塔里木大学南疆特色果树高效优质栽培与深加工技术国家地方联合工程实验室新疆 阿拉尔 843300 
常娇 塔里木大学园艺与林学学院新疆 阿拉尔 843300
塔里木大学南疆特色果树高效优质栽培与深加工技术国家地方联合工程实验室新疆 阿拉尔 843300 
高源 塔里木大学园艺与林学学院新疆 阿拉尔 843300
塔里木大学南疆特色果树高效优质栽培与深加工技术国家地方联合工程实验室新疆 阿拉尔 843300 
房健 塔里木大学园艺与林学学院新疆 阿拉尔 843300
塔里木大学南疆特色果树高效优质栽培与深加工技术国家地方联合工程实验室新疆 阿拉尔 843300 
谭占明 塔里木大学园艺与林学学院新疆 阿拉尔 843300
塔里木大学南疆特色果树高效优质栽培与深加工技术国家地方联合工程实验室新疆 阿拉尔 843300 
王旭峰 塔里木大学机械电气化工程学院新疆 阿拉尔 843300 
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中文摘要:
      以‘优胜美’水果黄瓜为试材,设置灌水水平和施氮量两个因素,采用二次饱和D-最优设计进行了田间试验,研究水氮耦合对沙培黄瓜生长、干物质积累和分配、产量的影响。结果表明:所有处理的各项生长指标均随着黄瓜生育期的推进逐渐增加,较低灌水水平(65%)未抑制黄瓜生长,增施氮肥能显著提升各项生长指标对应值,T3处理即灌水水平为65%、施氮量为1 250 kg·hm-2的水氮运筹方案获得了最好的植株生长特性。水氮耦合对植株干物质积累与分配的影响主要表现在叶片、茎和果实的积累上,植株干物质积累量随着施氮量的增加而显著增加,灌水水平与其呈开口向下的抛物线趋势,但灌水水平对干物质积累量的影响并不显著;通过生长指标的相关性分析确定了叶片叶绿素SPAD值可以作为预测植株干物质积累的关键指标。处理T4在全生育期内各项生长指标对应值均处在较高水平,其单株干物质积累量和干物质最大累积速率分别为248.08 g和4.02 g·株-1·d-1,均为各处理间最高值,同时其产量仅次于最高的T5,为101.93 t·hm-2,该处理符合农业生产中低投入高产出的目标,因此本研究推荐最适的水氮耦合方案为T4,即灌水水平为80.20%,施氮量为623 kg·hm-2
英文摘要:
      To clarify the response trend of cucumber to water and nitrogen coupling effects in sand cultivation, cucumber growth, dry matter accumulation, distribution, and yield were studied. “Youshengmei” fruit cucumber was selected as test material. The field experiment was carried out by using secondary saturated D-optimal design with two factors of irrigation level and nitrogen application. The results showed that: the growth indexes of all treatments increased gradually with the advance of cucumber growth period. Low irrigation level (65%) did not inhibit the growth of cucumber, the increase of nitrogen application significantly improved the corresponding values of growth indexes. T3 treatment, namely 65% irrigation level and 1 250 kg·hm-2 nitrogen application, had the best plant growth characteristics. The effects of water and nitrogen coupling on plant dry matter accumulation and distribution were mainly manifested in leaf, stem and fruit accumulation. The plant dry matter accumulation increased significantly with the increase of nitrogen application rate, and the irrigation level showed a downward parabolic trend, but the effect of irrigation level on plant dry matter accumulation was not significant. Through the correlation analysis of the growth indexes, it was determined that the leaf chlorophyll SPAD value could be used as a key index to predict the plant dry matter accumulation. The corresponding values of each growth index of treatment T4 during the whole growth period were at a high level, and the dry matter accumulation amount and the maximum dry matter accumulation rate of each plant were 248.08 g and 4.02 g·plant-1·d-1, respectively, which were the highest values among the treatments. Meanwhile, the yield of T4 (101.93 t·hm-2) was only second to T5, this treatment was in line with the goal of low input and high yield in agricultural production. Therefore, this study recommended T4 as the optimal water-nitrogen coupling scheme, namely, 80.20% irrigation level and 623 kg·hm-2 nitrogen application.
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