孔德杰,朱金霞,任成杰,任广鑫,冯永忠,杨改河,刘娜娜.麦豆长期轮作下秸秆还田对土壤碳氮组分及作物产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2022,40(5):190~200
麦豆长期轮作下秸秆还田对土壤碳氮组分及作物产量的影响
Effects of straw return on soil carbon and nitrogen components and crop yield under long\|term wheat\|soybean rotation
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2022.05.21
中文关键词:  秸秆还田  麦豆轮作  土壤  碳氮组分  产量
英文关键词:straw retention  wheat\|soybean rotation  soil  carbon and nitrogen components  yield
基金项目:宁夏回族自治区自然科学基金(2021AAC03278);国家自然科学基金(31971859);陕西省循环农业工程技术研究中心项目(2019HBGC-13);宁夏农林科学院项目(DWX-2018026)
作者单位
孔德杰 宁夏农林科学院农业生物技术研究中心宁夏 银川 750002西北农林科技大学农学院陕西 杨凌 712100陕西省循环农业工程技术研究中心陕西 杨凌 712100 
朱金霞 宁夏农林科学院农业生物技术研究中心宁夏 银川 750002 
任成杰 西北农林科技大学农学院陕西 杨凌 712100陕西省循环农业工程技术研究中心陕西 杨凌 712100 
任广鑫 西北农林科技大学农学院陕西 杨凌 712100陕西省循环农业工程技术研究中心陕西 杨凌 712100 
冯永忠 西北农林科技大学农学院陕西 杨凌 712100陕西省循环农业工程技术研究中心陕西 杨凌 712100 
杨改河 西北农林科技大学农学院陕西 杨凌 712100陕西省循环农业工程技术研究中心陕西 杨凌 712100 
刘娜娜 宁夏中科精科检测技术有限公司宁夏 银川 750011 
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中文摘要:
      通过在陕西杨凌开展的田间长期定位试验,研究冬小麦-夏大豆长期轮作模式下秸秆还田量(不还田、半量还田、全量还田)对土壤碳氮养分及麦豆产量的影响。结果表明:土壤全氮、矿物质氮、硝态氮、微生物量氮含量随着秸秆还田量的增加而增加,与不还田相比,半量还田处理0~40 cm土壤全氮、矿物质氮、硝态氮、微生物量氮含量比不还田处理平均增加10.51%、11.58%、15.71%、35.68%,全量还田处理比不还田处理平均增加19.61%、21.84%、26.50%、40.77%。秸秆半量还田、全量还田处理土壤有机碳含量比不还田处理分别增加4.10%、14.58%,水溶性有机碳含量分别增加2.01%、6.68%,微生物量碳含量分别增加6.71%、7.67%。土壤全氮、硝态氮、矿物质氮含量表现为9—12月份较高,3—5月份较低,微生物量碳、氮变化趋势与之相反。0~20 cm土壤中碳、氮各组分含量均高于20~40 cm土层。秸秆还田处理增产显著,与不还田处理相比,半量还田处理大豆、小麦产量分别增加3.63%、5.44%,全量还田处理分别增产19.69%、10.38%。长期麦豆轮作下秸秆全量还田措施是提高作物产量、改善土壤质量的有效途径。
英文摘要:
      Effects on dynamic changes in different fractions of soil nitrogen, soil carbon and crop yield by different treatments of straw retention under long time rotation of winter wheat and summer soybean by field experiment were studied. The straw residue treatments included no straw retention (NS), retention of half straw (HS), and retention of total amount of straw (TS). The result showed that the straw retention enhanced the soil total nitrogen (TN), nitrate (NO-3-N), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), soil mineral nitrogen (SMN) and soil organic carton (SOC), dissolved organic carton (DOC),and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) contents, with significant differences between the different treatments. The average of TN, SMN, NO-3-N,MBN contents of 0~40 cm soil under HS treatment was increased 10.51%, 11.58%, 15.71% and 35.68% when compared with that of NS treatment, respectively; and the numbers were increased 19.61%, 21.84%, 26.50%, and 40.77% under TS treatment compared with that of NS treatment, respectively. The content of SOC increased 4.10% and 14.58%, the DOC content increased 2.01% and 6.68%, and MBN increased 6.71% and 7.67% under HS and TS treatments when compared with NS treatment, respectively. The soil TN, SMN and NO-3-N contents were higher from September to December and lower from March to May, but the trends of MBC, MBN contents had opposite direction. The contents of carbon and nitrogen components were higher in the surface soil (0~20 cm) than in the subsoil (20~40 cm). Straw retention treatments increased yield of wheat and soybean significantly, and the rate increased 3.63% and 5.44% under HS treatment, and 19.69%, 10.38% under TS treatment as compared with no return treatment. In conclusion, total straw retention under longtime wheat\|soybean rotation has maintained soil fertility, reduced fertilizer application, and enhanced the ability of soil carbon sequestration in farmlands as to increase crop yields.
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