马宗桓,贺雅娟,李蔚,李文芳,左存武,郭艳兰,毛娟,陈佰鸿.施氮量对‘马瑟兰’葡萄果实挥发物质组分与含量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2022,40(5):201~211
施氮量对‘马瑟兰’葡萄果实挥发物质组分与含量的影响
Effects of nitrogen application rate on composition and content of aromatic substances in Marselan grape
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2022.05.22
中文关键词:  施氮量  葡萄  芳香物质含量  特征香气  香味类型
英文关键词:nitrogen application rate  grape  aromatic substances content  characteristic aroma  aroma type
基金项目:甘肃省青年科技基金(21JR7RA838);甘肃农业大学伏羲青年英才项目(GAUfx-04Y05);国家自然科学基金(32160685);甘肃农业大学公招博士科研启动基金(GAU-KYQD-2019-18)
作者单位
马宗桓 甘肃农业大学园艺学院甘肃 兰州 730070 
贺雅娟 甘肃农业大学园艺学院甘肃 兰州 730070 
李蔚 甘肃农业大学食品科学与工程学院甘肃 兰州 730070 
李文芳 甘肃农业大学园艺学院甘肃 兰州 730070 
左存武 甘肃农业大学园艺学院甘肃 兰州 730070 
郭艳兰 武威市林业科学研究院甘肃 武威 733000 
毛娟 甘肃农业大学园艺学院甘肃 兰州 730070 
陈佰鸿 甘肃农业大学园艺学院甘肃 兰州 730070 
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中文摘要:
      为了明确氮素施用量对‘马瑟兰’葡萄果实芳香物质组成及含量的影响,本研究通过设置4个施氮处理,分别为施入尿素150 kg·hm-2(N150)、300 kg·hm-2(N300)、450 kg·hm-2(N450)和600 kg·hm-2(N600),对照为整个生育期不施氮肥(N0)。在花后55 d(DAF55)、花后85 d(DAF85)和花后116 d(DAF116)采集果实样品,分析芳香物质组成及含量。结果表明,‘马瑟兰’果实中芳香物质以醛类为主,相对含量达到总含量的68%以上,施氮处理均能够增加DAF85前果实中挥发性物质含量,最高可达到20 122.28 μg·kg-1,而在采收期(DAF116)对照果实中挥发性物质含量为7 776.13 μg·kg-1,高于施氮处理3.56倍以上。月桂烯是‘马瑟兰’果实的特征性芳香物质之一,主要在成熟果实中含量丰富,且在N300处理下香气值最高,含量为55.86 μg·kg-1,3-乙烯醛是不施氮果实中的特征性香气物质。‘马瑟兰’果实香型以脂膏香和花香为主,施氮可增加原有香型比例,但不会改变整个生育期果实香味类型,而不施氮果实在成熟时以草香型为主,改变了原有香味特征。
英文摘要:
      To examine the effect of nitrogen application rate on composition and content of aromatic substances in Marselan grape, four nitrogen application treatments were set up. The treatments included 150 kg·hm-2 (N150), 300 kg·hm-2 (N300), 450 kg·hm-2 (N450) and 600 kg·hm-2 (N600) of urea and the control without nitrogen fertilizer (N0) during the whole growth period. Fruit samples were collected at 55 days after flowering (DAF55), 85 days after flowering (DAF85) and 116 days after flowering (DAF116). The results showed that aldehydes were the main aromatic substances in Maseran fruit, and the relative content reached more than 68% of the total content. Nitrogen application treatments increased the content of volatile substances in the fruit before DAF85, up to 20 122.28 μg·kg-1, while the content of volatile substances in the control fruit at the harvest time (DAF116) was 7 776.13 μg·kg-1, more than 3.56 times higher than the nitrogen treatment. Laurene was one of the characteristic aromatic substances in Maseran fruit. It was mainly rich in mature fruit, and the aroma value reached the highest under N300 treatment, with a content of 55.86 μg·kg-1. 3-vinyl aldehyde was the characteristic aromatic substance in fruits without nitrogen application. The aroma type of Marselan grape was mainly ointment aroma and flower aroma. Nitrogen application increased the proportion of original aroma type but did not change the aroma type of berries in the whole growth period. However, at maturity, the berries aroma type without nitrogen application was mainly grass aroma type, which changed the original aroma characteristics.
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