马光恕,梁枭,张渟,李润哲,廉华.生物炭对甜瓜幼苗质量与根系生理特性的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2022,40(5):212~221
生物炭对甜瓜幼苗质量与根系生理特性的影响
Effects of biochar on seedling quality and root physiological characteristics of melon
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2022.05.23
中文关键词:  甜瓜  生物炭  幼苗质量  根系  生理特性
英文关键词:melon  biochar  seedling quality  root  physiological characteristics
基金项目:黑龙江八一农垦大学科研团队、平台支持计划项目(TDJH202004)
作者单位
马光恕 黑龙江八一农垦大学园艺园林学院黑龙江 大庆 163319 
梁枭 黑龙江八一农垦大学园艺园林学院黑龙江 大庆 163319 
张渟 黑龙江八一农垦大学园艺园林学院黑龙江 大庆 163319 
李润哲 黑龙江八一农垦大学园艺园林学院黑龙江 大庆 163319 
廉华 黑龙江八一农垦大学园艺园林学院黑龙江 大庆 163319 
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中文摘要:
      于2021年4—7月,采用盆栽方法,在育苗营养土中设置了不同的生物炭添加量(分别为0、10、20、40、80 g·kg-1),研究生物炭对土壤物理性状、甜瓜幼苗根表面积、根系生理指标以及幼苗质量的影响。结果显示:生物炭不同添加量均能改善土壤物理性状,以80 g·kg-1应用效果最好,提高了土壤pH和含水量,分别比CK提高了1.86%和3.16%;且降低了土壤容重,比CK降低5.93%。与CK相比,生物炭不同添加量均能提高甜瓜根系生理活性,以40 g·kg-1应用效果最好,在甜瓜出苗后25 d,根系活力、根系中硝态氮含量、NR、CAT、POD、SOD、APX、PPO活性分别比CK提高了20.88%、5.70%、126.67%、10.47%、23.42%、31.58%、54.21%、62.88%。生物炭不同添加量均能提高甜瓜根表面积,以40 g·kg-1应用效果最好,在甜瓜出苗后25 d,根体积、根系总吸收面积、活跃吸收面积、活跃吸收面积百分比、根比表面分别比CK提高了21.07%、40.19%、71.82%、22.56%和15.76%。生物炭不同添加量均能提高甜瓜幼苗质量,以40 g·kg-1应用效果最好,在甜瓜出苗后25 d,株高、茎粗、叶面积、全株鲜质量、全株干质量、根冠比、壮苗指数分别比CK提高了34.87%、31.71%、33.91%、31.92%、45.10%、64.94%、43.33%。研究表明添加生物炭能够促进甜瓜幼苗形态建成,通过调节根系生理活性和改善根际土壤环境来提高幼苗质量。
英文摘要:
      Different biochar amounts (0, 10, 20, 40 g·kg-1 and 80 g·kg-1, respectively) were added to the seedling nutrient soil to evaluate the effects of biochar on soil physical properties, root surface area, root physiological indexes and seedling quality of melon seedlings through pot culture from April to July 2021. The results showed that different amounts of biochar improved soil physical properties. Among them, the treatment of 80 g·kg-1 was the most effective, with soil pH and water content increased by 1.86% and 3.16% respectively compared with CK, and the soil bulk density decreased by 5.93% compared with CK. Compared with CK, different amounts of biochar improved the physiological characteristics of muskmelon roots, and the treatment of 40 g·kg-1 was the most effective. The root activity, nitrate nitrogen content, nitrate reductase activity (NR), catalase activity (CAT), peroxidase activity (POD), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase activity (APX) and polyphenol oxidasea activity (PPO) of melon root increased by 20.88%, 5.70%, 126.67%, 10.47%, 23.42%, 31.58%, 54.21% and 62.88% respectively at 25 days after emergence. Compared with CK, different amounts of biochar improved the root surface area of muskmelon seedlings, and the treatment of 40 g·kg-1 was the most effective. The root volume, total root absorption area, active absorption area, percentage of active absorption area and root specific surface increased by 21.07%, 40.19%, 71.82%, 22.56% and 15.76% respectively compared with CK at 25 days after emergence. Compared with CK, different amounts of biochar could improve melon seedling quality, and the treatment of 40 g·kg-1 was the most effective. The plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, whole plant fresh weight, whole plant dry weight, root shoot ratio and strong seedling index increased by 34.87%, 31.71%, 33.91%, 31.92%, 45.10%, 64.94% and 43.33% respectively compared with CK at 25 days after emergence. The research results showed that the biochar application promoted the morphogenesis of melon seedlings, enhanced the quality of seedlings by regulating root physiological activity and improved rhizosphere soil environment.
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