刘兴斌,马宗海,闫治斌,樊廷录,陈绍江,王学,马世军,闫富海,马明帮,秦嘉海.不同秸秆发酵还田对制种玉米田土壤肥力质量和玉米品质的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2022,40(5):230~241
不同秸秆发酵还田对制种玉米田土壤肥力质量和玉米品质的影响
ffects of different fermented straws returning on soil fertility and maize quality in seed maize field
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2022.05.25
中文关键词:  秸秆发酵还田  制种玉米  土壤肥力  玉米品质
英文关键词:fermented straw returning to field  seed maize  soil fertility  maize quality
基金项目:甘肃省科技重大专项(21ZD10NF003);甘肃省重点研发计划项目(20YF3NF035);甘肃省科技重大专项(21ZD10NF002);甘肃省拔尖领军人才专项(BJLJRC200002)
作者单位
刘兴斌 甘肃省敦煌种业集团股份有限公司研究院, 甘肃 酒泉 735000 
马宗海 甘肃省敦煌种业集团股份有限公司研究院, 甘肃 酒泉 735000 
闫治斌 甘肃省敦煌种业集团股份有限公司研究院, 甘肃 酒泉 735000 
樊廷录 甘肃省农业科学研究院 甘肃 兰州 731000 
陈绍江 甘肃省敦煌种业集团股份有限公司研究院, 甘肃 酒泉 735000 
王学 甘肃省敦煌种业集团股份有限公司研究院, 甘肃 酒泉 735000 
马世军 甘肃省敦煌种业集团股份有限公司研究院, 甘肃 酒泉 735000 
闫富海 中国农业大学农学院北京 100010 
马明帮 甘肃省敦煌种业集团股份有限公司研究院, 甘肃 酒泉 735000 
秦嘉海 河西学院农业与生态工程学院甘肃 张掖 734000 
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中文摘要:
      在甘肃省张掖市甘州区甘浚镇巴吉村连续15 a种植制种玉米基地上,进行了小麦、玉米、蚕豆、豌豆、油菜籽和葵花秸秆发酵还田对制种玉米田土壤肥力质量和玉米品质影响的研究。结果表明:6种发酵秸秆还田后制种玉米田0~20 cm土层容重排序为:小麦秸秆<玉米秸秆<豌豆秸秆<葵花秸秆<油菜籽秸秆<蚕豆秸秆,孔隙度、水稳性团聚体和总持水量排序为:小麦秸秆>玉米秸秆>豌豆秸秆>葵花秸秆>油菜籽秸秆>蚕豆秸秆。制种玉米田pH值排序为:小麦秸秆<玉米秸秆<葵花秸秆<油菜籽秸秆<蚕豆秸秆<豌豆秸秆,CEC、有机质、速效氮磷钾、微生物数量、酶活性和制种玉米产量排序为:小麦秸秆>玉米秸秆>葵花秸秆>油菜籽秸秆>蚕豆秸秆>豌豆秸秆。小麦秸秆与玉米秸秆、葵花秸秆、油菜籽秸秆、蚕豆秸秆和豌豆秸秆比较,碱解氮分别增加0.87%、3.51%、6.23%、8.07%和9.93%,速效磷分别增加2.20%、2.51%、6.45%、6.67%和7.57% ,速效钾分别增加1.98%、3.12%、4.59%、6.12%和6.40%,细菌数量分别增加3.66%、4.70%、11.03%、14.29%和19.54%,放线菌数量分别增加7.28%、8.87%、17.55%、27.01%和36.42%,蔗糖酶活性分别提高0.74%、3.70%、6.56% 、12.16%和13.41%,脲酶活性分别提高6.59% 、10.23%、16.16%、25.97%和30.20%, 磷酸酶活性分别提高3.67% 、5.16% 、7.62% 、8.26%和10.88%, 多酚氧化酶活性分别提高4.35% 、9.09%、30.91%、41.18%和50.00%,制种玉米产量分别增加2.03% 、3.17%、5.33%、6.36%和8.49%。 制种玉米可溶性糖、淀粉和粗蛋白含量排序为:小麦秸秆>玉米秸秆>油菜籽秸秆>葵花秸秆>豌豆秸秆>蚕豆秸秆。小麦秸秆与玉米秸秆、油菜籽秸秆、葵花秸秆、豌豆秸秆和蚕豆秸秆比较,可溶性糖含量分别增加2.02%、7.75%、13.25%、18.52%和23.10%,淀粉含量分别增加2.05%、3.11%、6.28%、10.70%和14.13%,粗蛋白含量分别增加1.01%、5.11%、12.56%、13.41%和16.77%。施肥利润和肥料投资效率排序为:小麦秸秆>玉米秸秆>葵花秸秆>油菜籽秸秆>蚕豆秸秆>豌豆秸秆。小麦秸秆与玉米秸秆、葵花秸秆、油菜籽秸秆、蚕豆秸秆和豌豆秸秆比较,制种玉米施肥利润分别增加 0.09、0.16、0.25 、0.31、0.40万元·hm-2,肥料投资效率分别增加0.17、0.40、0.58 、0.77、0.97元·元-1。因此,在玉米制种基地上推广小麦秸秆发酵还田,有利于解决土壤肥力质量下降、制种玉米产量和品质低而不稳的问题。
英文摘要:
      Effects of fermented wheat, maize, bean, pea, rapeseed and sunflower straw returning on soil fertility and maize quality were studied in Baji village of Ganjun Town, Ganzhou District, Zhangye City, Gansu Province for 15 consecutive years. The results showed that the order of bulk density of 0~20 cm soil layer in seed maize field after returning 6 kinds of fermented straw was: wheat straw < maize straw < pea stalks < sunflower stalk < rapeseed straw < bean stalk. The order of aggregate porosity, water stability and total capacity was: wheat straw > maize straw > pea straw > sunflower straw > rapeseed straw > beans straw. The order of seed maize field pH value was: wheat straw < maize stover < sunflower stalk < rapeseed straw < bean stalk < pea stalks. The order of CEC, organic matter, available NPK, microorganism quantity, enzyme activity and breeding of maize yield was: wheat straw > maize straw > sunflower stalk > rapeseed straw > beans straw > pea stalks. Compared with maize straw, sunflower straw, rapeseed straw, broad bean straw and pea straw, alkali\|hydrolyzed nitrogen increased by 0.87%, 3.51%, 6.23%, 8.07% and 9.93%, and available phosphorus increased by 2.20%, 2.51%, 6.45%, 6.67% and 7.57%. Available potassium increased by 1.98%, 3.12%, 4.59%, 6.12% and 6.40%, the number of bacteria increased by 3.66%, 4.70%, 11.03%, 14.29% and 19.54%, and the number of actinomycetes increased by 7.28%, 8.87%, 17.55%, 27.01% and 36.42%. Sucrase activity increased by 0.74%, 3.70%, 6.56%, 12.16% and 13.41%, and urease activity increased by 6.59%, 10.23%, 16.16%, 25.97% and 30.20%. Phosphatase activity increased by 3.67%, 5.16%, 7.62%, 8.26% and 10.88%, and polyphenol oxidase activity increased by 4.35%, 9.09%, 30.91%, 41.18% and 50.00%. The yield of seed maize increased by 2.03%, 3.17%, 5.33%, 6.36% and 8.49%. The order of soluble sugar contents, starch and crude protein in seed maize was wheat straw > maize straw > rapeseed straw > sunflower straw > pea straw > broad bean straw. Compared with maize straw, rapeseed straw, sunflower straw, pea straw and broad bean straw, the soluble sugar content of wheat straw increased by 2.02%, 7.75%, 13.25%, 18.52% and 23.10%, while the starch content increased by 2.05%, 3.11%, 6.28%, 10.70% and 14.13%, crude protein content increased by 1.01%, 5.11%, 12.56%, 13.41% and 16.77%. The order of fertilizer profit and fertilizer investment efficiency was wheat straw > maize straw > sunflower straw > rapeseed straw > broad bean straw > pea straw. Compared with maize straw, sunflower straw, rapeseed straw, faba bean straw and pea straw, the fertilization profit of seed maize increased by 0.09, 0.16, 0.25, 0.31×104 Yuan·hm-2 and 0.40×104 Yuan·hm-2, and the fertilizer investment efficiency increased by 0.17, 0.40, 0.58, 0.77 Yuan·Yuan-1 and 0.97 Yuan·Yuan-1. The application of fermented wheat straw in maize seed production bases is conducive to solving the problems of soil fertility decline and unstable yield and quality of seed maize.
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