吕梦薇,胡笑涛,范晓懂,汝晨.拔节期高温干旱复合胁迫对夏玉米生长发育的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2022,40(6):82~89
拔节期高温干旱复合胁迫对夏玉米生长发育的影响
Effects of combined stress of high temperature and drought at jointing stage on summer maize growth and development
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2022.06.09
中文关键词:  夏玉米  高温干旱胁迫  光合特性  产量
英文关键词:summer maize  high temperature and drought stress  photosynthetic characteristic  yield
基金项目:“十三五”国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFD0201508);陕西省重点自然科学基金项目(2022JZ-24)
作者单位
吕梦薇 西北农林科技大学旱区农业水土工程教育部重点实验室 陕西 杨凌 712100 
胡笑涛 西北农林科技大学旱区农业水土工程教育部重点实验室 陕西 杨凌 712100 
范晓懂 西北农林科技大学旱区农业水土工程教育部重点实验室 陕西 杨凌 712100 
汝晨 西北农林科技大学旱区农业水土工程教育部重点实验室 陕西 杨凌 712100 
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中文摘要:
      西北地区夏玉米拔节期为高温和干旱易发期,对玉米造成高温和干旱双重胁迫,因此研究夏玉米生长对拔节期高温和干旱双重胁迫的响应对玉米高产稳产具有重要意义。采用盆栽试验结合人工模拟高温胁迫的方法,设置2个温度梯度(常温,T0;高温,T1),各温度设置3个水分梯度(适宜水分,W0;轻度干旱,W1;重度干旱,W2),共计6个处理。对玉米光合参数、叶绿素含量、株高以及干物质量进行测定与分析。结果表明:拔节期胁迫结束后,与T0W0处理相比,T1W0、T1W1、T1W2处理净光合速率分别降低39.78%、40.13%、57.13%,SPAD值分别降低34.99%、37.47%、43.19%;灌浆期中,与T0W0处理相比,上述三种处理株高分别降低20.40%、21.51%、35.22%,高温干旱复合胁迫对玉米生育后期造成了严重甚至不可恢复的影响;成熟期结束后,与T0W0处理相比,T1W2处理地上部分干物质量降低59.60%,百粒重降低10.09%。拔节期高温干旱复合胁迫导致光合速率下降、株高降低、干物质积累量减少、产量下降,然而高温适宜水分处理T1W0与高温干旱复合胁迫处理T1W2相比,净光合速率和SPAD值显著上升,保持适宜水分(70%~80%FC)可有效防止高温与干旱叠加,有助于缓解高温胁迫对玉米的伤害。
英文摘要:
      The jointing stage of summer maize in Northwest China coincides with the prone period of high temperature and drought, and maize is vulnerable to the dual stresses of high temperature and drought. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the response of summer maize growth to double stresses of drought and high temperature at jointing stage for high and stable yield of maize. In this study, a pot experiment combined with artificial simulation of high temperature stress was conducted. Two temperature gradients were set: normal temperature group (T0) and high temperature group (T1), and three water gradients were set at each temperature: suitable water (W0), mild drought (W1) and severe drought (W2). A total of 6 treatments were used to determine the changes of photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll content, plant height and dry matter quality of maize. The results showed that after jointing stage stress, the net photosynthetic rates of T1W0, T1W1 and T1W2 treatments decreased by 39.78%, 40.13%, 57.13%, and SPAD values decreased by 34.99%, 37.47%, and 43.19%, compared with the control treatment T0W0. At filling stage, compared with T0W0 treatment, the plant height of T1W0, T1W1 and T1W2 treatments decreased by 20.40%, 21.51% and 35.22%. The combined stress of high temperature and drought caused serious and even irreversible effects at later growth stage of maize. At the end of maturity, compared with T0W0 treatment, aboveground biomass of T1W2 treatment decreased by 59.60%, and 100-grain weight decreased by 10.09%. The combined stress of high temperature and drought at jointing stage led to the decrease of photosynthetic rate, plant height, dry matter accumulation and yield. However, compared with T1W2 under combined stress of high temperature and drought, the net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value of T1W0 under suitable water treatment increased significantly. Keeping suitable water (70%~80% FC) to prevent the superposition of high temperature and drought helps to alleviate the damage of high temperature stress on maize.
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