郑明,白云岗,张江辉,刘洪波,王蓓,肖军,丁宇,韩政宇.干播湿出灌水量和灌水频率对棉田土壤板结、水盐分布及出苗的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2022,40(6):100~107
干播湿出灌水量和灌水频率对棉田土壤板结、水盐分布及出苗的影响
Effects of irrigation quantity and irrigation frequency of dry sowing and wet seedling on soil compaction, water\|salt distribution and seedling emergence in cotton fields
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2022.06.11
中文关键词:  棉花  土壤板结  土壤水盐分布  灌水量  灌水频次
英文关键词:cotton  soil compaction  soil water and salt distribution  irrigation quantity  irrigation frequency
基金项目:新疆维吾尔自治区重大专项项目(2020A01002-1) ;新疆院士工作站合作研究项目(2020.D-004)
作者单位
郑明 新疆水利水电科学研究院新疆 乌鲁木齐 830049
农业农村部盐碱土改良与利用(干旱半干旱区盐碱地)重点实验室新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052 
白云岗 新疆水利水电科学研究院新疆 乌鲁木齐 830049
农业农村部盐碱土改良与利用(干旱半干旱区盐碱地)重点实验室新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052 
张江辉 新疆水利水电科学研究院新疆 乌鲁木齐 830049 
刘洪波 新疆水利水电科学研究院新疆 乌鲁木齐 830049
农业农村部盐碱土改良与利用(干旱半干旱区盐碱地)重点实验室新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052 
王蓓 新疆水利水电科学研究院新疆 乌鲁木齐 830049 
肖军 新疆水利水电科学研究院新疆 乌鲁木齐 830049 
丁宇 新疆农业大学水利与土木工程学院新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052 
韩政宇 新疆农业大学水利与土木工程学院新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052 
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中文摘要:
      为探究干播湿出对棉花覆土板结程度、土壤水盐分布以及出苗情况的影响,设置不同出苗水量与灌水频率2个因素,共计6个处理和1个对照处理,分别为WP1(675 m3·hm-2)、WP2(900 m3·hm-2)、WP3(1 125 m3·hm-2)、WP4\[(675+225) m3·hm-2\]、WP5\[(675+450) m3·hm-2\]、WP6\[(675+300+225) m3·hm-2\]与冬灌处理,对各处理的表层覆土板结度、灌前与灌后含水率及含盐量、出苗率、株高、茎粗等指标进行分析。结果表明:表层土壤板结度受灌溉水总量与灌水频次影响,WP4处理表层土壤板结程度最低(99.87 kPa),少量高频灌溉可以降低表层土壤板结度;各处理膜间电导率最大,高于窄行土壤9%以上;WP4处理出苗率最高(84.74%);窄行电导率、窄行含水率和表层覆土板结度与出苗率均具有显著负相关关系,土壤含水率与窄行电导率与株高、茎粗均呈现显著负相关关系。通过评判各处理出苗率与生长指标,WP4处理为最优处理。
英文摘要:
      To investigate the effects of dry sowing and wet seedling on cotton soil compaction, soil water and salt distribution and seedling emergence, six treatments and a control treatment were set up with different emergence water and irrigation frequency, namely WP1 (675 m3·hm-2), WP2 (900 m3·hm-2), WP3 (1 125 m3·hm-2), WP4 \[(675+225) m3·hm-2\], WP5 \[(675+450) m3·hm-2\], WP6 \[(675+300+225) m3·hm-2\] and winter irrigation treatments. The indexes of topsoil cover slab, water content and salinity before and after irrigation, seedling emergence, plant height, and stem thickness for each treatment were measured. The results showed that the surface soil slump was affected by the total amount of irrigation water and the frequency of irrigation, and the WP4 treatment had the lowest surface soil slump (99.87 kPa), and a small amount of high\|frequency irrigation reduced the surface soil slump. The conductivity between the membranes was the highest for each treatment, being more than 9% higher than that of the narrow\|row soil. The highest seedling emergence (84.74%) was observed for the WP4 treatment. The narrow\|row conductivity, narrow\|row water content and top\|soil bulking all had significant negative correlations with seedling emergence, and soil water content and narrow\|row conductivity showed significant negative correlations with plant height and stem thickness. By evaluating the seedling emergence rate and growth index of each treatment, WP4 treatment was the best treatment.
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