高兰兰,李靖,黄海燕,相彪,李淑芳,李爽.滴灌条件下加气灌溉对云南冬马铃薯根区生境因子和产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2022,40(6):108~115
滴灌条件下加气灌溉对云南冬马铃薯根区生境因子和产量的影响
Effects of aerated irrigation on soil habitat factors and yield of winter potato under drip irrigation in Yunnan
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2022.06.12
中文关键词:  马铃薯  加气灌溉  土壤含水率  土壤温度  土壤氧气摩尔分数
英文关键词:potato  aerated irrigation  soil moisture content  soil temperature  soil oxygen mole fraction
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31700635);云南省农业基础联合专项青年项目(2018FG001-107)
作者单位
高兰兰 云南农业大学水利学院云南 昆明 650051 云南省智慧农业与水安全国际联合研发中心云南 昆明 650201 
李靖 云南农业大学水利学院云南 昆明 650051 云南省智慧农业与水安全国际联合研发中心云南 昆明 650201 
黄海燕 云南水利水电职业学院云南 昆明 650051 
相彪 云南农业大学水利学院云南 昆明 650051 
李淑芳 云南农业大学水利学院云南 昆明 650051 
李爽 中国电建集团昆明勘测设计研究院有限公司云南 昆明 650051 
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中文摘要:
      为了研究加气灌溉对云南冬马铃薯根区生境因子(土壤呼吸、土壤水分、土壤温度、土壤氧气摩尔分数)和产量的影响,采用水气分离方法进行加气灌溉,试验设置加气(Y)和不加气(N)2种处理以及高水(100%ETc,W1)和低水(60%ETc,W2)2个灌溉水平,共计4个处理。结果表明:加气处理和灌水量均对土壤呼吸速率影响显著(P<0.05)。加气灌溉对土壤含水率的影响较小,除块茎膨大期外,其他生育期加气灌溉对土壤含水率的影响均不显著,影响土壤含水率的主要因素是灌水量。加气处理和灌水量对根区土壤温度均有一定影响,W1Y处理下的土壤平均温度较W1N处理高1.68℃,W2Y处理较W2N处理高0.52℃,且在高水灌溉条件下,加气处理对土壤温度有显著影响(P<0.05)。在马铃薯生育期内土壤氧气摩尔分数的变化呈先增大后降低的特征,4种处理下土壤氧气摩尔分数的大小关系为W1Y>W2Y>W2N>W1N。同一灌溉水平下,加气处理的土壤氧气摩尔分数显著高于不加气处理(P<0.05)。同一加气条件下,高水处理的土壤氧气摩尔分数显著高于低水处理。加气处理和灌水量都对冬马铃薯产量和水分利用效率有显著影响,W1Y处理下冬马铃薯的产量和水分利用效率均最大。综合分析表明,W1Y(高水加气)处理有利于冬马铃薯根区形成良好的水气平衡状态。
英文摘要:
      A water\|gas separation method was used to study the effects of aerated irrigation on soil habitat factors of soil respiration, soil moisture, soil temperature, and soil oxygen content. This experiment included 4 treatments of aerated (Y), unaerated (N), full irrigation (100%ETc,W1) (ETc for crop water requirement) and deficit irrigation (60%ETc,W2). The results showed that both aerated irrigation and irrigation amount had effects on soil moisture content when potato was growing in a period of low water consumption. In the tuber swelling stage with the largest water consumption, the effect of aerated irrigation on soil moisture content was small, and the main factor affecting soil moisture content was irrigation water. Under the same level of irrigation, the average soil temperature under treatment W1Y was higher 1.68℃ than the treatment W1N, and treatment W2Y was higher 0.52℃ than that treatment W2N. Under the irrigation condition of W1, there were significant differences between W1Y and W1N in most growth stages (P<0.05). It indicated that aerated irrigation had significant effect on soil temperature under condition of sufficient irrigation amount. The changes of soil oxygen content in potato growth period showed the characteristics of increasing first and then decreasing. The relation of soil oxygen content under the four treatments was W1Y>W2Y>W2N>W1N. At the same irrigation level, the oxygen content of aerated irrigation was significantly higher than the unaerated irrigation. Under the same aeration condition, the oxygen content of W1Y treatment was significantly higher than W2Y treatment. Under the same aeration condition, the oxygen content of treatment W1Y was significantly higher than treatment W2Y. It indicated that a good state of water and gas balance was formed in the soil under the condition of high level and aeration irrigation, which was conducive to the growth of crops. The results provides a theoretical basis for studying environmental effects of aerated irrigation in farmland.
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