李蓉,王怡琳,屈红超,朱志军,张子豪,张浩,蒋锐.旱地矮化苹果园当季氮肥在土壤剖面的累积与淋溶效应[J].干旱地区农业研究,2022,40(6):156~166
旱地矮化苹果园当季氮肥在土壤剖面的累积与淋溶效应
Accumulation and leaching effects of seasonal nitrogen fertilizer in the soil profile of dryland dwarf apple orchards
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2022.06.17
中文关键词:  苹果  15N  施氮量  硝态氮
英文关键词:apple  15N  N application rate  nitrate nitrogen
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41877086);国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFD0200106);陕西省自然科学基金项目(2020JZ-16)
作者单位
李蓉 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院陕西 杨凌 712100 
王怡琳 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院陕西 杨凌 712100 
屈红超 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院陕西 杨凌 712100 
朱志军 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院陕西 杨凌 712100 
张子豪 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院陕西 杨凌 712100 
张浩 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院陕西 杨凌 712100 
蒋锐 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院陕西 杨凌 712100 
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中文摘要:
      为研究旱地矮化苹果树当季肥料氮在土壤中的累积与淋溶效应,采用土钻采样法与15N同位素示踪技术,测定了6 a生晚熟矮化‘延长红’苹果园土壤剖面(0~300 cm)的氮素累积分布特征与当季氮肥残留。结果表明:土壤含水率与硝态氮含量变化表现出较强的一致性,不施肥CK、减氮施肥N400与常规施肥N800处理硝态氮在80~140 cm土层存在明显富集现象,其含量峰值分别为174.9、194.8 mg·kg-1与211.1 mg·kg-1。CK、N400与N800处理0~300 cm土壤剖面中,全氮累积量分别为10 927.3、13 734.8 kg·hm-2与15 645.4 kg·hm-2,硝态氮累积量分别为1 873.5、2 353.9 kg·hm-2与2 892.7 kg·hm-2,铵态氮累积量分别为12.2、42.6 kg·hm-2与44.4 kg·hm-2。N400和N800处理下果园土壤中各土层(0~300 cm)氮素来自当季氮肥的比例分别为0.10%~1.50%和0.18%~2.03%。当季氮肥在0~300 cm深度各土层均有残留且主要集中在0~140 cm土层;80~100 cm土层的全氮来自当季氮肥的比例(减氮施肥N400和常规施肥N800分别为1.50%与2.03%)显著高于其他土层。N400处理下TN-15N、NO-3-15N、NH+4-15N的残留率分别为21.6%、19.2%、0.2%,N800处理分别为48.8%、39.3%、0.3%,土壤中氮的残留率随着施氮量的增加显著增加,且以硝态氮为主。100~300 cm土层中减氮施肥N400与常规施肥N800处理NO-3-15N残留率分别为8.5%与25.0%,当季氮肥淋溶出根区(0~80 cm)现象明显。最佳施肥量及施肥量对产量的影响在N400的基础上仍有待进一步研究确定。
英文摘要:
      To study the accumulation and leaching of seasonal nitrogen (N) fertilizer in dryland dwarf apple trees, soil auger sampling and 15N isotope tracing techniques were used to determine the nitrogen accumulation distribution characteristics and seasonal N fertilizer residues in the soil profile (0~300 cm) of six\|year\|old late\|maturing dwarf ‘Yanchanghong’ apple orchards. The results showed that soil water content and nitrate\|nitrogen content had a strong similar trend. Nitrate\|nitrogen was significantly enriched in the 80~140 cm soil layer in CK, N400 and N800 treatments, with peaks of 174.9, 194.8 mg·kg-1and 211.1 mg·kg-1 respectively. In the 0~300 cm soil profiles of the CK, N400 and N800 treatments, the accumulation of total N was 10 927.3, 13 734.8 kg·hm-2 and 15 645.4 kg·hm-2, the accumulation of nitrate was 1 873.5, 2 353.9 kg·hm-2 and 2 892.7 kg·hm-2, and the accumulation of ammonium N was 12.2, 42.6 kg·hm-2and 44.4 kg·hm-2, respectively. The proportion of nitrogen from seasonal N fertilizer in the orchard soil (0~300 cm) ranged from 0.10% to 1.50% in the N400 treatment and from 0.18% to 2.03% in the N800 treatment. The proportion of total nitrogen from seasonal nitrogen fertilizer was significantly higher in the 80~100 cm layer (1.50% and 2.03% for N400 and N800, respectively) than in the other layers. The residual rates of TN-15N, NO-3-15N and NH+4-15N were 21.6%, 19.2% and 0.2% under N400 treatment and 48.8%, 39.3% and 0.3% under N800 treatment, respectively, and the residual rates of N in the soil increased significantly with the increase of applied N, and were mainly nitrate N. The residual rates of NO-3-15N in the 100~300 cm soil layer were 8.5% and 25.5% for N400 and conventional N800 treatments, respectively. The N fertilizer leaching out of the root zone (0~80 cm) in the season was obvious. The optimum fertilizer application rate and the effect of fertilizer application rate on yield are still to be determined on the basis of N400.
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