张文文,杨海波,马玲,安明远,申佳丽,曹云娥.生物炭、三叶草和蚯蚓种养对西瓜根际土壤细菌群落多样性的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2022,40(6):175~184
生物炭、三叶草和蚯蚓种养对西瓜根际土壤细菌群落多样性的影响
Effects of biochar, clover and earthworm on bacterial community diversity in watermelon rhizosphere soil
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2022.06.19
中文关键词:  生物炭  三叶草  蚯蚓种养  西瓜  土壤细菌群落  PICRUST2功能预测
英文关键词:biochar  clover  earthworm breeding  watermelon  soil bacterial community  PICRUST2 function prediction
基金项目:“十三五”国家重点研发计划课题(2019YFD1001904);宁夏回族自治区重点研发计划项目(2021BBF02025,2021BBF02005)
作者单位
张文文 宁夏大学农学院宁夏 银川 750021 
杨海波 宁夏大学农学院宁夏 银川 750021 
马玲 宁夏大学农学院宁夏 银川 750021 
安明远 宁夏大学农学院宁夏 银川 750021 
申佳丽 宁夏大学农学院宁夏 银川 750021 
曹云娥 宁夏大学农学院宁夏 银川 750021 
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中文摘要:
      为探究生物炭、三叶草和蚯蚓种养三种施用方式对西瓜根际土壤细菌群落多样性、功能预测及养分的影响,开展田间小区试验,设置对照(CK)、生物炭(B)、三叶草(T)、蚯蚓种养(V)、生物炭+蚯蚓种养(BV)、三叶草+蚯蚓种养(TV)、三叶草+生物炭(BT)和三叶草+生物炭+蚯蚓种养(BTV)等8个处理。结果表明:不同处理对西瓜根际土壤养分具有显著影响,BV处理土壤速效钾含量最高(383.41 mg·kg-1),TV处理土壤全氮含量最高(0.79 g·kg-1)、BTV处理土壤速效磷含量最高(427.51 mg·kg-1),分别较CK处理提高102.23%、75.56%、23.88%。BTV处理Shannon指数显著高于其他处理;TV处理Simpson指数较T处理提高56.52%;B处理的ACE和Chao1指数较BTV处理分别提高10.95%和12.59%。不同土壤处理影响细菌群落组成和相对丰度,其中变形菌门、放线菌门、绿弯菌门和厚壁菌门为优势菌门。与CK相比,BTV处理的变形菌门和放线菌门相对丰度分别提高47.85%和30.47%,而酸杆菌门相对丰度降低48.36%。PICRUST2功能预测分析表明,BTV处理根际土壤细菌群落中新陈代谢、氨基酸代谢和全局概览通路等功能的活性加强,其活性微生物在“生物炭—三叶草—蚯蚓种养—西瓜”复合生境中起重要作用。综上,不同土壤处理方式改善了土壤细菌群落多样性和土壤养分,其中生物炭和三叶草配合蚯蚓种养施用的综合效果最好。
英文摘要:
      To investigate the effects of biochar, clover and earthworm cultivation on bacterial community diversity, functional prediction and nutrients in watermelon rhizosphere soil, a field plot experiment was conducted. Eight treatments including control (CK), biochar (B), clover (T), earthworm cultivation (V), biochar + earthworm cultivation (BV), clover + earthworm cultivation (TV), clover + biochar (BT) and clover + biochar + earthworm cultivation (BTV) were set up. The results showed that different treatments had significant effects on soil nutrients in watermelon rhizosphere. Compared with CK, BV treatment had the highest soil available K (383.41 mg·kg-1), significantly increased by 102.23%. The soil total nitrogen under TV treatment was the highest, which was 0.79 g·kg-1, significantly increased by 75.56%. The content of soil available P in BTV treatment was the highest, which was 427.51 mg·kg-1, significantly increased by 23.88%. The Shannon index of BTV treatment was significantly higher than that of other treatments. Simpson index of TV treatment was 56.52% higher than that of T treatment. ACE and Chao 1 indexes of B treatment were 10.95% and 12.59% higher than those of BTV treatment, respectively. Different soil treatments affected the relative abundance of bacterial community composition, of which Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chlorobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla. Compared with CK, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria increased by 47.85% and 30.47%, respectively, while the relative abundance of Acidobacteria decreased by 48.36%. Functional prediction analysis of PICRUST2 showed that BTV enhanced the activities of metabolism, amino acid metabolism and global overview pathway in rhizosphere bacterial community, and the active microorganisms might play an important role in the “biochar\|clover\|earthworm farming\|watermelon” complex habitat. This study showed that different soil treatments improved soil bacterial community diversity and soil nutrients, and biochar and clover combined with earthworm cultivation had the best comprehensive effect.
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