苟燕如,杨京京,柴强,汤庆峰,严涵,胡洋,邓朋飞,孙霞,贾宏涛.不同覆膜连作年限对玛纳斯县棉田土壤质量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2022,40(6):192~200
不同覆膜连作年限对玛纳斯县棉田土壤质量的影响
Effects of different coating years on soil quality of cotton field in Manase County
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2022.06.21
中文关键词:  覆膜连作年限  土壤理化性质  土壤酶活性  土壤质量
英文关键词:film coating for continuous years  soil physical and chemical properties  soil enzyme activity  soil quality
基金项目:新疆维吾尔自治区自然科学基金项目(2021D01A88);农业农村部西北绿洲农业环境重点实验室开放基金项目(XBLZ-202004);新疆维吾尔自治区研究生科研创新项目(XJ2021G168)
作者单位
苟燕如 新疆农业大学资源与环境学院新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052 
杨京京 石河子农业科学研究院新疆 石河子 532000 
柴强 新疆玛纳斯县兰州湾镇人民政府新疆 玛纳斯 832200 
汤庆峰 北京市科学技术研究院分析测试研究所(北京市理化分析测试中心)北京 100089 
严涵 新疆农业大学资源与环境学院新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052 
胡洋 新疆农业大学资源与环境学院新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052 
邓朋飞 新疆农业大学资源与环境学院新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052 
孙霞 新疆农业大学资源与环境学院新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052新疆土壤与植物生态过程重点实验室新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052 
贾宏涛 新疆农业大学资源与环境学院新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052新疆土壤与植物生态过程重点实验室新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052 
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中文摘要:
      为研究不同覆膜连作年限对玛纳斯县棉田土壤质量的影响,以新疆玛纳斯县覆膜连作0、5、10、20、30 a的棉田为研究对象,分别采集0~10、10~20、20~30 cm土层土壤,测定其土壤理化性质、土壤酶活性、土壤微生物量碳、氮含量等指标,并对不同覆膜连作年限玛纳斯县棉田的土壤质量进行综合评价。结果表明:(1)随覆膜连作年限的增加,土壤含水率和有机质含量逐渐增加,以覆膜连作30 a时最高,分别为11.52%和21.60 g·kg-1,土壤速效磷呈先升高后降低趋势,在覆膜连作10 a时含量最高(49.60 mg·kg-1),土壤电导率、总盐、速效钾和碱解氮总体呈降低趋势,在覆膜连作年限30 a时含量最低,分别为0.50 mS·cm-1、0.69 g·kg-1、148.28 mg·kg-1和25.27 mg·kg-1;同一覆膜连作年限下,随着土层深度的增加,土壤含水率、电导率和总盐逐渐增加,pH值、有机质、速效磷、速效钾和碱解氮含量逐渐降低。(2)在不同覆膜连作年限下,土壤蔗糖酶、脲酶、碱性磷酸酶活性随覆膜连作年限的增加呈先升高后降低趋势,在覆膜连作10 a时活性最高,分别为10.57 mg·g-1·d-1、0.86 mg·g-1·d-1、0.40 mg·g-1·d-1,土壤过氧化氢酶活性随不同覆膜连作年限并无显著变化,为1.80~2.20 mL·g-1;在同一覆膜连作年限下,土壤脲酶、碱性磷酸酶活性均表现为表层>深层,且差异显著。随覆膜连作年限的增加,土壤微生物量碳含量呈现先增加后减少的趋势,最高为205.26 mg·kg-1,微生物量氮含量逐渐降低,最低在覆膜连作30 a时为11.40 mg·kg-1,且不同土层土壤微生物量碳、氮表现为表层>深层。(3)土壤速效磷与过氧化氢酶、脲酶、碱性磷酸酶活性和微生物量碳呈极显著正相关关系,与蔗糖酶活性呈显著正相关关系,表明土壤速效磷是影响土壤酶活性和微生物量碳、氮的主要因素。土壤质量综合评价表明,以覆膜连作10 a的土壤质量最佳,0 a和30 a的土壤质量相对较低。
英文摘要:
      The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different coating years on soil properties and enzyme activity. In April 2021, the cotton fields of 0~10, 10~20 cm and 20~30 cm in Manas County were selected as study sites. The soil physical and chemical properties, soil enzyme activity, soil microbial carbon and nitrogen content were determined, and the soil quality of cotton fields in Manas County with different film mulching years were comprehensively evaluated. The results showed that: (1) With the increase of film coating continuous years, soil water content and organic matter content were gradually increased, reaching the highest levels of 52% and 21.60 g·kg-1 with film coating for 30 years. Soil fast\|acting phosphorus increased first before decreasing, and the highest content was with film coating for 10 years, reaching 49.60 mg·kg-1. Soil conductivity, total salt, quick\|acting potassium, alkaline nitrogen had a decrease trend with film coating for 30 years. They were 0.50 mS·cm-1, 0.69 g·kg-1, 148.28 mg·kg-1, and 25.27 mg·kg-1 respectively. During the same period of film coating, with the increased depth of the soil layer, soil water content, conductivity, total salt gradually increased, and pH, organic matter, quick phosphorus, quick potassium, alkaline nitrogen gradually decreased. (2) Under the different years of film coating, soil sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase decreased with the increase of the film coating years, reaching the highest content with the coating for 10 years with 10.57 mg·g-1·d-1,0.86 mg·g-1·d-1, and 0.46 mg·g-1·d-1 respectively. Soil catalase increased significantly with different coating years, ranging from 1.80 to 2.20 mL·g-1, At the same period of coating years, except that sucrase content was greater than 10~20 cm, the soil enzyme activity was greater than surface soil and significantly different in deep soil. With the increase of the years of film coating, the soil microbial biomass carbon content increased first and then decreased with the highest 205.26 mg·kg-1, and the microbial biomass nitrogen content gradually decreased with the lowest 11.40 mg·kg-1 under the coating for 30 years. The soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen performance were higher than the deep layer. (3) Fast\|acting phosphorus had a very significant positive correlation with the micro biomass carbon of catalase, urease, alkaline phosphatase, and sucrase, indicating that soil fast\|acting phosphorus was the main factor affecting soil enzyme activity and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Comprehensive evaluation of soil quality showed optimal soil quality under 10-year film coating and relatively low soil quality under 0 and 30-year film coating.
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