惠施佳,张金霞.不同覆盖方式和灌水定额对河西绿洲食葵农田土壤水热、养分和产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2022,40(6):212~223
不同覆盖方式和灌水定额对河西绿洲食葵农田土壤水热、养分和产量的影响
Effects of different mulching patterns and irrigation quotas on soil hydrothermal, nutrients and yield of sunflower farmland in Hexi Oasis
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2022.06.23
中文关键词:  食葵  灌水定额  贮水量  碎麦秸垫膜覆盖  产量
英文关键词:sunflower  irrigation quota  water storage  broken wheat straw cushion film mulch  yield
基金项目:2021年甘肃省高等学校创新基金项目(2021B-138);甘肃农业大学学科建设专项基金项目(GAU-XKJS-2018-079);国家自然科学基金项目(51509039)
作者单位
惠施佳 甘肃农业大学水利水电工程学院,甘肃 兰州 730070新疆水利厅水资源规划研究所,新疆 乌鲁木齐 830000 
张金霞 甘肃农业大学水利水电工程学院,甘肃 兰州 730070 
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中文摘要:
      为明确不同覆盖方式结合灌水定额在食葵种植中的增产机制,以无覆盖(N)种植为对照,设置地膜覆盖(S)、秸秆覆盖(F)和碎麦秸垫式膜覆盖(SF)共3种覆盖方式,结合900 m3·hm-2(H)和750 m3·hm-2(M)2个灌水定额,对食葵农田土壤水热、养分及产量展开研究。结果表明:覆盖处理结合不同灌水定额均较无覆盖种植增加土壤贮水量,其中当灌水定额为900 m3·hm-2时,SF和F显著增加23.89%和12.37%、S增加了6.50%;当灌水定额为750 m3·hm-2时,SF、F、S分别显著增加20.64%、8.23%、6.96%。覆盖处理结合不同灌水定额对土壤温度的影响不同,其中当灌水定额为900 m3·hm-2时,SF和F较N提高2.82%~7.43%,S较N降低4.3%;当灌水定额为750 m3·hm-2时,SF和F均高于N,增幅为1.40%~6.87%。覆盖处理结合不同灌水定额可提高土壤碱解氮、速效磷、速效钾和有机质含量,其中SF处理有机质、速效磷、速效钾和碱解氮含量较N处理分别显著增加16.7%、15.2%、12.8%和16.5%,F和S处理有机质、速效磷和速效钾较N处理分别提高6.3%~6.8%、4.7%~7.8%和8.6%~8.8%。覆盖处理结合不同灌水定额可提高食葵产量及水分利用效率,其中SFH、SH、FH、SFM、FM处理分别较N处理增产25.9%、6.7%、10.4%、18.2%、15.2%,SM降低了3.1%,SFM处理水分利用效率提高6.3%。综上所述,SFM处理在改善食葵土壤水热、增加土壤养分、提高食葵产量及水分利用效率方面具有较大优势,故SFM种植模式是适宜于河西绿洲食葵种植的农业生产技术。
英文摘要:
      To clarify the yield\|increasing mechanism of different mulching methods combined with irrigation quota in sunflower planting, three mulching methods including plastic film mulching (S), straw mulching (F) and straw mat mulching with crushed wheat straw (SF) and no mulching (N) as the control were set up in this study. Two irrigation quotas were 900 m3·hm-2 (H) and 750 m3·hm-2 (M). The soil water and temperature, nutrients and yield of sunflower were studied. The results showed that mulching treatments combined with different irrigation quotas increased soil water storage compared with non\|mulching planting. When the irrigation quota was 900 m3·hm-2, SF and F increased by 23.89% and 12.37%, and S increased by 6.50%. When the irrigation quota was 750 m3·hm-2, SF, F and S significantly increased by 20.64%, 8.23% and 6.96%, respectively. Mulching combined with different irrigation quota had different effects on soil temperature. When the irrigation quota was 900 m3·hm-2, SF and F increased by 2.82%~7.43%, and S decreased by 4.3% compared with N. When the irrigation quota was 750 m3·hm-2, SF and F were higher than N, with an increase of 1.40%~6.87%. Mulching treatment combined with different irrigation ration increased the contents of soil alkali\|hydrolyzed nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, and organic matter. Compared with N treatment, SF treatment significantly increased the contents of organic matter, available phosphorus, available potassium, and alkali\|hydrolyzed nitrogen by 16.7%, 15.2%, 12.8% and 16.5%, respectively. Compared with N treatment, F and S treatments increased organic matter, available phosphorus, and potassium by 6.3%~6.8%, 4.7%~7.8% and 8.6%~8.8%, respectively. Mulching treatment combined with different irrigation quota increased the yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of sunflower. Compared with N treatment, SFH, SH, FH, SFM and FM treatments increased by 25.9%, 6.7%, 10.4%, 18.2% and 15.2%, respectively, while SM decreased by 3.1% and SFM treatment increased WUE by 6.3%. In conclusion, SFM treatment had great advantages in improving soil moisture and temperature of sunflower, increasing soil nutrients, sunflower yield, and water use efficiency. Therefore, SFM planting pattern is a suitable agricultural production technology for sunflower cultivation in Hexi oasis.
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