史多鹏,叶子壮,李杰,许迎浩,吕慎强,王林权,周春菊.氮肥配施生物炭和脲酶抑制剂对夏玉米-冬小麦产量及氮素利用的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2023,(4):51~60
氮肥配施生物炭和脲酶抑制剂对夏玉米-冬小麦产量及氮素利用的影响
Effects of nitrogen combined with biochar and urease inhibitor on yield and nitrogen utilization of summer maize\|winter wheat system
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2023.04.06
中文关键词:  氮肥  生物炭  脲酶抑制剂  夏玉米  冬小麦  产量  氮素吸收量  氮肥表观利用率
英文关键词:nitrogen fertilizer  biochar  urease inhibitor  summer maize  winter wheat  yield  N uptake  apparent nitrogen use efficiency
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(32072682);国家重点实验室基金(A314021402-1920)
作者单位
史多鹏 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院陕西 杨凌 712100 
叶子壮 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院陕西 杨凌 712100 
李杰 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院陕西 杨凌 712100 
许迎浩 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院陕西 杨凌 712100 
吕慎强 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院陕西 杨凌 712100 
王林权 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院陕西 杨凌 712100 
周春菊 西北农林科技大学生命科学学院陕西 杨凌 712100 
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中文摘要:
      于2019—2021年采用再裂区设计,设置氮肥、生物炭和脲酶抑制剂3个因素,主处理设5个氮水平:0、75、150、225 kg·hm-2和300 kg·hm-2,副处理设2个生物炭水平:0 t·hm-2和7.5 t·hm-2,副副处理设2个脲酶抑制剂水平:0%和2%,共20个处理,研究氮肥配施生物炭和脲酶抑制剂对夏玉米-冬小麦轮作体系作物产量和氮肥吸收利用的影响。结果表明,施用生物炭显著提高夏玉米和冬小麦产量、植株氮素吸收量、氮肥表观利用率、氮素收获指数以及夏玉米地上部生物量,较不施生物炭处理分别增加4.4%和2.9%、2.3%和3.0%、25.8%和13.5%、4.9%和6.1%、4.5%;氮肥单独配施生物炭可显著提高夏玉米和冬小麦产量、植株氮素吸收量和氮肥表观利用率,且氮肥和生物炭具有显著的交互效应。施用脲酶抑制剂显著增加夏玉米植株氮素吸收量和氮肥表观利用率,较不施脲酶抑制剂处理分别提高1.5%和3.0%;氮肥单独配施脲酶抑制剂可提高夏玉米植株氮素吸收量和氮肥表观利用率,但氮肥与脲酶抑制剂无显著交互效应。氮肥同时配施生物炭与脲酶抑制剂可显著提高夏玉米和冬小麦产量、植株氮素吸收量和氮肥表观利用率,较单施氮肥处理(B0C0)平均增幅分别为10.0%和4.2%、5.4%和3.4%、11.0%和6.2%,但氮肥、生物炭和脲酶抑制剂三者之间均无显著交互效应。综上,氮肥单独配施生物炭能够提高夏玉米和冬小麦产量及其对氮肥的吸收利用率,且效果优于同时配施生物炭和脲酶抑制剂;氮肥单独配施脲酶抑制剂对提高夏玉米氮肥吸收利用率具有一定的作用。
英文摘要:
      From 2019 to 2021, a re\|split plot design was used to study the effects of nitrogen fertilizer combined with biochar and urease inhibitor on crop yield and nitrogen uptake and utilization in summer maize\|winter wheat rotation system. Three factors of nitrogen fertilizer, biochar and urease inhibitor were set up. The main treatment was set up with five nitrogen levels: 0, 75, 150, 225 kg·hm-2 and 300 kg·hm-2, and the secondary treatment was set up with two biochar levels: 0 t·hm-2 and 7.5 t·hm-2. Under the secondary treatment, two urease inhibitor levels of 0% and 2% were used. The results showed that the application of biochar significantly increased the yield, plant nitrogen uptake, apparent nitrogen use efficiency (ANUE), nitrogen harvest index of summer maize and winter wheat and aboveground biomass of summer maize, which were 4.4% and 2.9%, 2.3% and 3.0%, 25.8% and 13.5%, 4.9% and 6.1%, 4.5% higher than those without biochar application, respectively. Nitrogen fertilizer combined with biochar significantly increased the yield of summer maize and winter wheat, plant nitrogen uptake and ANUE, and there was a significant interaction between nitrogen fertilizer and biochar. The application of urease inhibitors significantly increased the nitrogen uptake and ANUE of summer maize plants, which were 1.5% and 3.0% higher than those without urease inhibitors, respectively. Nitrogen fertilizer combined with urease inhibitor could increase nitrogen uptake and ANUE of summer maize, but there was no significant interaction between nitrogen fertilizer and urease inhibitor. Nitrogen fertilizer combined with biochar and urease inhibitor significantly increased the yield, plant nitrogen uptake and ANUE of summer maize and winter wheat, with an average increase of 10.0% and 4.2%, 5.4% and 3.4%, 11.0% and 6.2%, respectively, compared with N fertilization alone, but there was no significant interaction between nitrogen fertilizer, biochar and urease inhibitor. In summary, nitrogen fertilizer alone combined with biochar increased the yield of summer maize and winter wheat and its absorption and ANUE, and the effect was better than that combined use of biochar and urease inhibitor. Nitrogen fertilizer alone with urease inhibitor had a certain effect on improving the absorption and utilization of nitrogen fertilizer in summer maize.
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