杨诗雨,曹红霞,孙涛,南学平,赵凯,李志军.地布和生草二元覆盖对关中猕猴桃园土壤水分、果树生长和产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2023,(4):187~197
地布和生草二元覆盖对关中猕猴桃园土壤水分、果树生长和产量的影响
Effects of dual mulching on soil moisture, growth and yield of kiwifruit in Guanzhong Plain
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2023.04.20
中文关键词:  二元覆盖  水分竞争  光合参数  猕猴桃  产量  果实品质
英文关键词:dual mulching  water competition  photosynthetic parameters  kiwifruit  yield  fruit quality
基金项目:“十三五”国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0400204);陕西省水利厅科技计划项目( 2020slkj-08)
作者单位
杨诗雨 西北农林科技大学水利与建筑工程学院旱区农业水土工程教育部重点实验室陕西 杨凌 712100 
曹红霞 西北农林科技大学水利与建筑工程学院旱区农业水土工程教育部重点实验室陕西 杨凌 712100 
孙涛 西北农林科技大学水利与建筑工程学院旱区农业水土工程教育部重点实验室陕西 杨凌 712100 
南学平 陕西果业科技集团有限公司陕西 杨凌 712100 
赵凯 陕西果业科技集团有限公司陕西 杨凌 712100 
李志军 西北农林科技大学水利与建筑工程学院旱区农业水土工程教育部重点实验室陕西 杨凌 712100 
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中文摘要:
      为探明不同覆盖模式对关中平原地区猕猴桃生长发育及果实产量、品质的影响,设置树下地布行间生草覆盖(F1G1)、树下地布行间裸地覆盖(F1G0)、树下裸地行间生草覆盖(F0G1)、裸地(CK)4种覆盖模式,其中F1G1为二元覆盖,F1G0和F0G1为单一覆盖,裸地为无覆盖,对比分析了各处理对不同生育时期土壤水分、猕猴桃生长生理和果实产量、品质等参数的影响。结果表明,二元覆盖有效改善了土壤水分环境,在猕猴桃萌芽展叶期和开花坐果期其20~100 cm土层树下和行间土壤含水率差值比率(SMDR)最低,土壤水分竞争最小;在果实膨大期和果实成熟期其树下、行间0~100 cm土层的土壤含水率较CK均有增长。不同覆盖模式对猕猴桃树不同生育时期的营养生长和光合生理参数影响不同,其中单一覆盖F0G1对新梢长度和新梢直径累积生长量影响最显著,其次为二元覆盖F1G1;但在果实膨大期和果实成熟期,F1G1的净光合速率(Pn)分别比F0G1提高了19.0%、20.6%。不同覆盖模式均可以提高猕猴桃产量,二元覆盖F1G1对猕猴桃树单株产量提升效果最为显著,较CK显著提高14.9%,F0G1处理次之,F1G0处理最小。二元覆盖F1G1的猕猴桃可溶性糖含量、糖酸比分别较CK显著增加21.9%、45.1%,且其糖酸比高于其他处理。综上可知,在关中平原猕猴桃园采用树下地布行间生草覆盖二元覆盖模式有利于促进树体生长,同时有助于增加产量,改善果实品质。
英文摘要:
      To investigate the effects of different mulching modes on kiwifruit growth and fruit yield and quality in Guanzhong Plain, four mulching modes were set up: in\|row fabric mulching and inter\|row grass covering (F1G1), in\|row fabric mulching and inter\|row bare land without mulching (F1G0), in\|row bare land without mulching and inter\|row grass covering (F0G1) and bare land without mulching (CK). F1G1 was a dual mulching mode. F1G0 and F0G1 were single mulching modes. CK was a non\|mulching mode. The soil moisture, growth physiology and fruit yield and quality of kiwifruit at different growth stages were analyzed and compared. The results showed that, at the sprout period and blossom and fruit period of kiwifruit, the dual mulching mode effectively improved the soil water environment. The difference ratio of soil water content between in\|row and inter\|row (SMDR) was the lowest at the 20~100 cm soil layer, indicating the least soil water competition. Compared with CK, the soil moisture content in 0~100 cm soil layer between in\|row and inter\|row increased during both fruit expansion and fruit maturity periods. Different mulching modes had different effects on vegetative growth and photosynthetic physiological parameters of kiwifruit trees at different growth stages. Single mulching treatment F0G1 had the most significant effect on the cumulative growth of new shoot length and diameter, followed by dual mulching F1G1. However, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of F1G1 increased by 19.0% and 20.6% compared with that of F0G1 at fruit expansion stage and fruit maturity stage. Different mulching modes improved kiwifruit yield, and dual mulching treatment F1G1 had the most significant improvement effect on kiwifruit yield per plant compared with CK by 14.9%, followed by F0G1 treatment and F1G0 treatment. The soluble sugar content, sugar and acid ratio of kiwifruit of F1G1 significantly increased by 21.9% and 45.1% compared with CK, and the value of sugar and acid ratio was larger than other treatments. In conclusion, the adoption of dual mulching (in\|row fabric mulching and inter\|row grass covering) in kiwifruit orchards in Guanzhong Plain was beneficial to promote tree growth, increase yield and improve fruit quality.
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