王新,陈兵,余渝,王刚,王琼,孙乐鑫,陈子杰.抗旱剂对棉花生长发育和产量、品质的影响研究[J].干旱地区农业研究,2023,(4):208~216
抗旱剂对棉花生长发育和产量、品质的影响研究
Effects of drought\|resistance chemicals on growth, development, yield, and quality of cotton
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2023.04.22
中文关键词:  抗旱剂  棉花  生长发育  产量  品质
英文关键词:drought\|resistance chemicals  cotton  growing development  yield  quality
基金项目:国家重点研发计划:棉花抗逆栽培技术集成与应用(2020YFD1001002 );新疆兵团英才项目/棉花生物学国家重点实验室开放课题:基于临界氮浓度的滴灌棉花氮素营养诊断研究(CB2018A10)
作者单位
王新 新疆农垦科学院棉花研究所/农业农村部西北内陆区棉花生物学与遗传育种重点实验室新疆 石河子 832003 
陈兵 新疆农垦科学院棉花研究所/农业农村部西北内陆区棉花生物学与遗传育种重点实验室新疆 石河子 832003 
余渝 新疆农垦科学院棉花研究所/农业农村部西北内陆区棉花生物学与遗传育种重点实验室新疆 石河子 832003 
王刚 新疆农垦科学院棉花研究所/农业农村部西北内陆区棉花生物学与遗传育种重点实验室新疆 石河子 832003 
王琼 新疆农垦科学院棉花研究所/农业农村部西北内陆区棉花生物学与遗传育种重点实验室新疆 石河子 832003 
孙乐鑫 新疆农垦科学院棉花研究所/农业农村部西北内陆区棉花生物学与遗传育种重点实验室新疆 石河子 832003石河子大学农学院新疆 石河子 832003 
陈子杰 新疆农垦科学院棉花研究所/农业农村部西北内陆区棉花生物学与遗传育种重点实验室新疆 石河子 832003石河子大学农学院新疆 石河子 832003 
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中文摘要:
      为探明干旱胁迫下不同抗旱剂对棉花生长发育各项指标的影响,设置K1(黄腐酸钾)、K2(植物蛋白免疫剂)、K3(含氨基酸水溶肥)3种类型抗旱剂和A1(蕾期)、A2(蕾期+花期)、A3 (花期)3种喷施时期组合的小区试验,定量分析不同处理对棉花农艺性状、干物质量、叶面积指数、根冠比、根系形态指标及产量和品质的影响,明确3种抗旱剂和喷施时期的最优组合。结果表明:K1A1、K1A3和K3A1处理的株高、果枝台数、蕾数、花数、叶龄分别为70.2、68.8、68.9 cm,7.9、7.7、7.7台,5.9、5.8、5.9个,1.3、1.3、1.3个和13.7、13.9、13.7,3个处理株高、果枝台数、蕾数及叶龄均显著高于对照且优于其他处理;K2A3处理的干物质量为4.3 t·hm-2,K2A1叶面积指数为2.8,K1A1、K3A2处理的根冠比分别为0.156、0.156,与对照差异显著,且均优于其他处理;K1A1处理的根长、根面积分别为36.9 cm、0.63 mm2,K2A1处理根直径为0.95 mm,K3A3处理根体积、根面积分别为26.9 cm3、0.63 mm2,均优于其他处理;K1A1、K2A3和K3A1处理的籽棉产量最高、产量构成因子配比最优,产量分别为5 876.4、5 866.3 kg·hm-2和5 968.3 kg·hm-2;K1A1、K3A1处理的上半部平均长度、断裂比强、马克隆值、整齐度、伸长率分别为31.6、31.8 mm,37.2、37.1 cN·tex-1,4.0、3.9,87.0%、87.5%,7.1%、7.1%,除马克隆值略低外,K1A1、K3A1处理的其余棉纤维品质均优于其他处理。 综上可知,K1、K2、K3抗旱剂蕾期喷施组合处理(K1A1、K2A1、K3A1)各项指标表现较好,可为不同需求下的滴灌棉花抗旱节水生产提供参考。
英文摘要:
      In this paper, the effects of drought\|resistance chemicals on growth and development under high temperature and drought stress in cotton were discussed. Different types of drought\|resistance chemicals of fulvic acid potassium (K1), plant protein immunizers (K2), water\|soluble fertilizer containing amino acid (K3) were sprayed at bud stage (A1), bud and flowering stages (A2), flowering stage (A3) in this study. Agronomy parameters, dry matter, leaf area index, root\|shoot ratio, root morphology index, yield, and quality were observed across treatments and cultivars to decide the optimal drought\|resistance chemicals at different spraying periods. The results showed that the plant height, the number of sympodials, buds, flowers and leaf age of K1A1, K1A3 and K3A1 were 70.2, 68.8, 68.9 cm, 7.9, 7.7, 7.7, 5.9, 5.7, 5.9, 1.3,1.3 and 1.3, 13.7, 13.9, 13.7, respectively, which were significantly different from the CK and were better than other combinations. The dry matte mass of K2A3 was 4.3 t·hm-2 and leaf area index of K2A1 was 2.8. The root\|shoot ratio of K1A1, K3A2 were 0.156 and 0.156, respectively, which were significantly different from the CK and were better than other combinations. The root length, root area of K1A1 was 36.9 mm, 0.63 mm2 and the root diameter of K2A1 was 0.95 mm, the root volume and root area of K3A3 were 26.9 cm3and 0.63 mm2, respectively, which were significantly different from the CK and were better than other combinations. The combinations of K1A1, K2A3 and K3A1 had the highest seed cotton yield and the best yield composition factor ratio, with 5 876.4, 5 866.3, 5 968.3 kg·hm-2, respectively. The upper half mean length, breaking tenacity, micronaire, uniformity and elongation of K1A1 and K3A1 were 31.6, 31.8 mm, 37.2, 37.1 cN·tex-1, 4.0, 3.9, 87.0%, 87.5%, 7.1%, 7.1%, respectively. Except the micronaire value was slightly lower than CK, the other cotton fiber quality indexes of K1A1 and K3A1 combination treatment were higher than those of other treatments, and the cotton fiber quality was better. To sum up, the indicators under the combination treatment of K1, K2, K3 drought\|resistance chemicals at bud stage (K1A1, K2A1, K3A1) all performed well, which can serve as the theoretical basis for large\|area application of drought resistance and water saving in drip irrigation cotton under different needs.
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