陈娟,马忠明,牛小霞,边金霞,王平.酿酒葡萄水肥一体化灌溉定额与灌溉布局成本效益分析[J].干旱地区农业研究,2023,(5):70~79
酿酒葡萄水肥一体化灌溉定额与灌溉布局成本效益分析
Cost\|benefit analysis of irrigation quota and irrigation layout under water and fertilizer integration cultivation for wine grapes
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2023.05.08
中文关键词:  酿酒葡萄  水肥一体化;灌溉定额  灌溉布局  成本效益分析
英文关键词:wine grape  integration of water and fertilizer  irrigation rate  irrigation method  cost\|benefit analysis
基金项目:甘肃省农业科学院重点研发项目(2021GAAS22);甘肃省重点研发计划项目(22YF7NA039);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0201508)
作者单位
陈娟 甘肃省农业科学院经济作物与啤酒原料研究所甘肃 兰州 730070 
马忠明 甘肃省农业科学院 甘肃 兰州 730070 
牛小霞 甘肃省农业科学院经济作物与啤酒原料研究所甘肃 兰州 730070 
边金霞 甘肃省农业科学院经济作物与啤酒原料研究所甘肃 兰州 730070 
王平 兰州市农业科技研究推广中心甘肃 兰州 730000 
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中文摘要:
      为探究河西灌区酿酒葡萄适宜的灌溉定额和灌溉布局,于2019—2021年进行了连续3年田间试验。以‘赤霞珠’酿酒葡萄为供试材料,采取裂区设计,灌溉定额为主区,设置3个灌水水平,即1 800 m3·hm-2(低水WL)、2 700 m3·hm-2 (中水,WM)和3 600 m3·hm-2(高水,WH);灌溉布局为副区,设置3种方式,即1管1行(C-S)、2管1行(C-D)及2管1行分根区灌溉(PRD),探究不同灌溉定额与灌溉布局对酿酒葡萄生长、产量、果实品质及经济效益的影响。结果表明:灌溉定额对酿酒葡萄修剪量、产量、果实品质及葡萄园可变成本具有显著影响,WL处理葡萄果实品质最佳,平均可溶性固形物、多酚及花色苷分别达27.37°Brix、30.69 mg·g-1及6.74 mg·g-1;WM处理葡萄产量最高,为10 163.2 kg·hm-2;WH处理葡萄修剪量最大,为1.53 kg·株-1。灌溉布局对酿酒葡萄修剪量、产量及果实品质无显著影响,C-D及PRD灌溉布局增加了葡萄园固定成本,与C-S 灌溉布局相比,固定成本均增加了481元·hm-2。较其他处理,C-S(WM)处理投资效益费用比、成本利润率最大,增幅分别为0.94%~10.27%、0.6%~36.57%,而生产成本最低,降幅达0.01~0.57元·kg-1,盈亏平衡点的产量与价格分别降低了176.90~3 818.07 kg·hm-2和0.02~0.6元·kg-1,当水费高达0.67元·m-3时,C-S(WM)处理净利润仍然在7 500元·hm-2以上。综合酿酒葡萄生长、产量、品质及成本效益分析,C-S(WM)处理可平衡营养生长与生殖生长,提高葡萄果实品质与产量,降低安装成本与生产成本,净利润大于7 500元·hm-2,经济可行,回报率高。
英文摘要:
      The overall aim of this study was to identify the optimum irrigation methods and irrigation rates to simultaneously improve the growth, fruit yield, quality and economic benefit of wine grape. A three\|year (2019—2021) field experiment in the Hexi Corridor of Gansu Province was used to assess the effects of irrigation methods and irrigation rates on growth, yield, fruit quality and economic benefit in wine grape under fertilization management. The experiment followed a completely randomized split\|plot design with three irrigation amounts of 1 800 m3·hm-2(WL), 2 700 m3·hm-2(WM), and 3 600 m3·hm-2 (WH) as the main\|plot treatments, and three irrigation methods of one pipeline per vine row (C-S), two pipelines per vine row (C-D) and partial root\|zone drying (PRD) as the sub\|plot treatments. The results showed that, the irrigation rate had a remarkable effect on the pruning amount, yield, fruit quality and variable cost of wine grape. The WL treatment produced the best fruit quality, the content of soluble solid, polyphenol and anthocyanin were 27.37 °Brix, 30.69 mg·g-1 and 6.74 mg·g-1, respectively. The WM treatment produced the highest yield (10 163.2 kg·hm-2), and the WH treatment produced maximum pruning amount of grape (1.53 kg·plant-1). The irrigation method had an insignificant effect on the pruning amount, yield and fruit quality. Compared with C-S treatments, C-D and PRD treatments both increased the fixed cost of the vineyard by 481 Yuan·hm-2. Compared with other treatments, the C-S (WM) treatment increased Net Margin/Investment and Net Margin/Cost by 0.94%~10.27%, 0.6%~36.57%, respectively,while C-S(WM) treatment decreased production cost by 0.01~0.57 Yuan·kg-1. At break\|even point, the yield and price of grape under the C-S(WM) treatment decreased by 176.90~3 818.07 kg·hm-2, 0.02~0.6 Yuan·kg-1, respectively. The threshold price of water indicated that only the C-S (WM) treatment remains net profit was more than 7500 Yuan·hm-2 with higher water prices of up to 0.67 Yuan·m-3. The comprehensive consideration of growth, yield, quality and cost\|benefit indicated that one pipeline per vine row and 2 700 m3·hm-2 (C-S (WM)) treatment, C-S (WM) increased extra berry quality and yield of wine grape. The C-S (WM) was more economically profitable (lower installation cost and production cost), net profit was more than 7 500 Yuan·hm-2, which was economically viable and achieved high returns.
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