吴东明,韩雅楠,马宏亮,祁鹏飞,魏育明,樊高琼,刘琼,郑亭.氮肥后移对中、弱筋小麦籽粒淀粉合成及其糊化特性的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2023,(5):186~197
氮肥后移对中、弱筋小麦籽粒淀粉合成及其糊化特性的影响
Agricultural College of Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, China
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2023.05.20
中文关键词:  中筋小麦  弱筋小麦  氮肥后移  淀粉合成  糊化特性
英文关键词:medium gluten wheat  weak gluten wheat  postponing nitrogen fertilizer application  starch synthesis  gelatinization characteristics
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(32072054;31971939);四川省重大科技专项(2022ZDZX0014);四川省农作物育种攻关项目(2021YFYZ0002)
作者单位
吴东明 四川农业大学农学院四川 成都 611130 
韩雅楠 四川农业大学农学院四川 成都 611130 
马宏亮 四川农业大学农学院四川 成都 611130 
祁鹏飞 四川农业大学农学院四川 成都 611130 
魏育明 四川农业大学农学院四川 成都 611130 
樊高琼 四川农业大学农学院四川 成都 611130 
刘琼 四川农业大学农学院四川 成都 611130 
郑亭 四川农业大学农学院四川 成都 611130 
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中文摘要:
      以中筋品种‘蜀麦482’、‘蜀麦969’,弱筋品种‘川农16’、‘绵麦51’为材料,在总施氮量(纯氮)为150 kg·hm-2和基追比为6∶4的条件下,设置底肥一次施用、追施拔节肥、追施孕穗肥3个施氮时期,开展两年两点试验。结果表明:(1)氮肥后移处理小麦籽粒总淀粉含量、直链淀粉含量及直/支比分别显著下降0.20~1.75个百分点、0.10~1.85个百分点及4.88%~10.42%,可分别解释23.92%~39.00%、37.65%~45.08%、24.29%~29.04%的变异,支链淀粉含量基本无变化。(2)施氮时期可解释糊化特性0.01%~13.5%的变异。氮肥后移后4个品种的糊化指标基本均有所提升,其中,峰值黏度、低谷黏度、最终黏度和回复值的变化达显著水平。(3)氮肥后移后籽粒中AGPase、SSS以及GBSS活性均有所增加,尤其是灌浆中后期20~35 d与底肥一次性施用处理差异多达显著水平,并且差异随灌浆的推移而增大,中筋品种表现尤为显著。(4)AGP-LSbe1DWx-DI基因表达量在灌浆中后期20~35 d显著降低。因此,弱筋品种追肥需提前,适宜底肥一次施用或者拔节前追肥;中筋品种可考虑追施拔节肥或孕穗肥。
英文摘要:
      Two medium\|gluten varieties and two weak\|gluten varieties were evaluated at three periods of N fertilizer application, 100% basal,60% basal and 40% topdressing at jointing stage, and 60% basal and 40% topdressing at booting stage, under N level of 150 kg·hm-2 at two sites over two growing seasons. The results showed that, (1) The contents of total starch and amylose and the ratio of amylose to amylopectin in grains, whose percentages of variability explained by postponing N fertilizer application accounted for 23.92%~39.00%, 37.65%~45.08% and 24.29%~29.04%, respectively, for decreasing by 0.20~1.75 percentage points, 0.10~1.85 percentage points and 4.88%~10.42%, respectively, while no change was observed in the amylopectin content. (2) The period of nitrogen application explained 0.01%~13.5% variation of gelatinization characteristics. The pasting indexes of the four varieties were basically improved after postponing N fertilizer application. Significant differences were identified in changes of peak viscosity, trough viscosity, final viscosity and recovery value. (3) The activities of AGPase, SSS and GBSS in grains exhibited decreasing trends during filling stage after postponing N fertilizer application, and significant differences were widely detected during 20~35 days after anthesis, especially for the medium\|gluten cultivars. (4) The expression of AGP-L, Sbe1D,and Wx-DI significantly decreased during 20~35 days after anthesis. Collectively, the formation and accumulation of starch was inhibited to some extent after postponing N fertilizer application. It was recommended that 100% basal or topdressing at jointing stage was suitable for weak\|gluten varieties, topdressing at booting stage was suitable for medium\|gluten varieties.
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