胡宇,王元基,贺颖,冯郁晨,贾荣俭,宁瑞渊,史涛,赵政阳.不同肥水处理对‘瑞香红’苹果果实糖代谢与品质的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2024,(3):107~117
不同肥水处理对‘瑞香红’苹果果实糖代谢与品质的影响
Effects of different fertilizer and water treatments on sugar metabolism and quality of Ruixianghong apple fruits
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2024.03.12
中文关键词:  苹果  肥水处理  果实品质  糖代谢
英文关键词:apple  fertilizer and water treatment  fruit quality  sugar metabolism
基金项目:国家苹果产业技术体系(CARS-27);陕西省自然基金项目(2023-JC-QN-0193);西北农林科技大学科研启动基金项目(2452022027);陇东地区主推苹果新品种肥水管理技术研究(QY -STK-2022A-043)
作者单位
胡宇 西北农林科技大学园艺学院/陕西省苹果工程技术研究中心陕西 杨凌 712100 
王元基 西北农林科技大学园艺学院/陕西省苹果工程技术研究中心陕西 杨凌 712100 
贺颖 西北农林科技大学园艺学院/陕西省苹果工程技术研究中心陕西 杨凌 712100 
冯郁晨 西北农林科技大学园艺学院/陕西省苹果工程技术研究中心陕西 杨凌 712100 
贾荣俭 西北农林科技大学园艺学院/陕西省苹果工程技术研究中心陕西 杨凌 712100 
宁瑞渊 西北农林科技大学园艺学院/陕西省苹果工程技术研究中心陕西 杨凌 712100 
史涛 庆城县苹果试验示范站甘肃 庆城 745199 
赵政阳 西北农林科技大学园艺学院/陕西省苹果工程技术研究中心陕西 杨凌 712100 庆城县苹果试验示范站甘肃 庆城 745199 
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中文摘要:
      以5 a生‘瑞香红’苹果为试材,以只施基肥为对照(CK),T1为施基肥+3、6、9月分3次共追施N 0.34 kg·株-1、P2O5 0.20 kg·株-1、K2O 0.32 kg·株-1;T2为T1处理的施肥基础上,每次施肥时补充灌水0.03 m3·株-1;T3为施基肥+生育期7次灌水,每次灌水量为0.03 m3·株-1;T4为施基肥+3月(萌芽前)、4月(开花前)、5月(落花后)、6月(花芽分化期)、8月(果实膨大期)分5次共追施N 0.34 kg·株-1、P2O5 0.20 kg·株-1、K2O 0.32 kg·株-1;T5为T4的施肥基础上,每次施肥时补充灌水0.03 m3·株-1,共设置6个处理,分析不同肥水处理对土壤养分和苹果果实糖代谢与品质的影响。结果表明:同种施肥条件下,生育期灌水会增加单果质量和产量,降低果实硬度,其中T2的单果质量(235.93 g)和产量(45 037.11 kg·hm-2)最大;相较于CK,只增加灌水(T3)会降低果实可滴定酸及果实氮元素含量,降幅分别为14.85%和21.29%;施肥与灌水均会增加果皮挥发性物质的总含量,与CK相比,T2~T5处理提高显著,且T3处理表现最优;T1和T2处理提高了果实中果糖与葡萄糖含量,增加了果实的甜度值,这与果实中的酸性转化酶、蔗糖合成酶分解方向活性增加有关;此外施肥与灌水均会降低果实中山梨醇脱氢酶活性。隶属函数综合评价结果表明:6种肥水处理对‘瑞香红’苹果果实品质指标影响的综合评价指数表现为T2>T1>T5>T3>T4>CK。综上,在干旱地区,多次施加少量肥水在增加‘瑞香红’苹果产量的同时能提高果实品质;适度的肥水处理能提高果实蔗糖和葡萄糖含量;T2处理苹果产量和果实品质均为最优,可作为干旱地区苹果生产的推荐施肥方案。
英文摘要:
      A five\|year\|old Ruixianghong apple was employed as the test object. The control treatment (CK) included only basic fertilizer, T1 treatment received three applications of N 0.34 kg·plant-1, P2O5 0.20 kg·plant-1, and K2O 0.32 kg·plant-1 in the months of March, June, and September based on the baseline fertilizer, T2 was based on the fertilization of T1 treatment with 0.03 m3 per plant per fertilizing time, and T3 was irrigated seven times at a rate of 0.03 m3·plant-1 on the assumption that only basal fertilizer was used during growth period. N 0.34 kg·plant-1, P2O5 0.20 kg·plant-1, and K2O 0.32 kg·plant-1 were applied five times to T4 based on basal fertilizer in March (before germination), April (before flowering), May (after falling flower), June (flower bud differentiation), and August (fruit expansion). Based on T4, T5 treatment increased irrigation by 0.03 m3·plant-1 per fertilization. To investigate the effects of various fertilizer and water treatments on soil nutrients, sugar metabolism, and apple fruit quality, a total of six treatments were set up. The findings demonstrated that irrigation throughout the growth phase improved single fruit mass and productivity while reducing fruit hardness under the same fertilization conditions, and the single fruit weight and yield of T2 were the highest (235.93 g, 45 037.11 kg·hm-2). As irrigation increased, the amount of titratable acid and nitrogen in fruit dropped in comparison to CK (T3), the decline was 14.85% and 21.29%, respectively. Fertilizer and irrigation applications raised the pericarp’s overall volatile matter concentration. When compared with CK, the total level of volatile matter in the pericarp was considerably higher in T2, T3, T4, and T5. T3 treatment had the greatest total content of volatile compounds. Fruit sweetness rose in response to T1 and T2 treatments, which were correlated with increased fructose and glucose levels and sucrose synthase and acid invertase activity. Furthermore, fruits’ sorbitol dehydrogenase activity was reduced by irrigation and fertilization. The fruit quality indicators of Ruixianghong were found to be affected by six different fertilizer and water treatments, as shown by the comprehensive assessment indexes of subordinate function, which were as follows: T2>T1>T5>T3>T4>CK. In summary, the Ruixianghong apple generated more fruit and had higher\|quality fruit in arid places if a small amount of fertilizer and water was applied more frequently. Fruits with moderate levels of fertilizer and water treatment contained more sugar and glucose. The T2 treatment had the highest yield and fruit quality, making it an ideal option for fertilization when growing apples in arid regions.
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