郭锦花,李梦瑶,张军,李爽,彭彦珉,肖慧淑,田文仲,李俊红,张洁,李芳,黄明,李友军.施用有机肥和秸秆还田对旱地玉-麦二熟体系作物产量、品质和化肥效率的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2024,(3):118~126
施用有机肥和秸秆还田对旱地玉-麦二熟体系作物产量、品质和化肥效率的影响
Effects of organic fertilizer application and straw return on crop yield, quality, and fertilizer efficiency in summer maize\|winter wheat double cropping system
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2024.03.13
中文关键词:  有机肥  秸秆还田  玉-麦二熟  产量  蛋白质含量  蛋白质组分  肥料农学效率
英文关键词:organic fertilizer  straw return  maize\|wheat double cropping system  grain yield  protein content  protein components  agronomic efficiency
基金项目:河南省科技攻关项目(202102110087);河南省旱地绿色智慧农业特色骨干学科群建设项目(17100001);国家重点研发计划重点专项(2018YFD0300707)
作者单位
郭锦花 河南科技大学农学院河南 洛阳 471023 
李梦瑶 河南科技大学农学院河南 洛阳 471023 
张军 河南科技大学农学院河南 洛阳 471023 
李爽 河南科技大学农学院河南 洛阳 471023 
彭彦珉 河南科技大学农学院河南 洛阳 471023 
肖慧淑 河南科技大学农学院河南 洛阳 471023 
田文仲 洛阳农林科学院河南 洛阳 471023中国农业科学院洛阳旱农试验基地河南 洛阳 471023 
李俊红 洛阳农林科学院河南 洛阳 471023中国农业科学院洛阳旱农试验基地河南 洛阳 471023 
张洁 洛阳农林科学院河南 洛阳 471023中国农业科学院洛阳旱农试验基地河南 洛阳 471023 
李芳 洛阳农林科学院河南 洛阳 471023中国农业科学院洛阳旱农试验基地河南 洛阳 471023 
黄明 河南科技大学农学院河南 洛阳 471023 
李友军 河南科技大学农学院河南 洛阳 471023 
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中文摘要:
      为探明施用商品有机肥和秸秆还田对旱地夏玉米-冬小麦二熟体系作物产量、品质和肥料利用效率的影响,于2015—2020年度设置不施肥+秸秆不还田(CK)、施氮磷肥+秸秆不还田(NP)、施氮磷肥+秸秆不还田+商品有机肥(NPO)和施氮磷肥+秸秆还田(NPS)4个处理进行田间试验,测定并分析作物产量、氮磷肥农学效率、籽粒养分含量、蛋白质含量以及冬小麦籽粒中蛋白质组分含量。结果表明:(1)与NP和NPO处理相比,NPS处理夏玉米5 a平均产量分别显著提高21.33%和20.77%,周年产量分别显著提高9.99%和13.43%,但3个施肥处理间小麦产量差异不显著。(2)施用商品有机肥和秸秆还田对夏玉米、冬小麦的籽粒品质均有显著影响。与NP处理相比,NPO处理冬小麦籽粒各蛋白质组分含量提高5.69%~8.28%;NPS处理冬小麦籽粒氮含量、钾含量和各蛋白质组分含量分别提高4.68%、3.96%和7.75%~11.38%。相较于NPO处理,NPS处理冬小麦籽粒钾含量、谷蛋白含量、贮藏蛋白含量和谷醇比分别显著提高14.41%、9.86%、5.39%和9.65%,夏玉米籽粒蛋白质含量、产量和籽粒氮、籽粒磷含量以及周年蛋白质产量分别显著提高6.45%、28.89%、6.40%、23.08%和10.43%。(3)相较于NP和NPO处理,NPS处理夏玉米氮肥的农学效率分别提高118.35%和113.25%,周年氮、磷肥农学效率分别提高42.83%和64.36%、42.86%和64.27%,但3个施肥处理间冬小麦氮肥、磷肥农学效率5 a均值无显著差异。综合来看,长期施用商品有机肥和秸秆还田可改善冬小麦籽粒中的蛋白质组分特性,秸秆还田还能增加夏玉米籽粒钾含量和冬小麦籽粒蛋白质含量和蛋白质产量,秸秆还田较施用商品有机肥更利于提高旱地玉-麦二熟区作物产量、品质和肥料利用效率。综上所述,施氮磷肥+秸秆还田的管理模式更适宜在旱地玉-麦二熟区进行推广。
英文摘要:
      To investigate the effects of organic fertilizer application and straw return on crop yield, quality, and fertilizer use efficiency in a dryland maize\|winter wheat double cropping system, field experiments were conducted from 2015 to 2020 with four treatments of no fertilizer application and no straw return (CK), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer application and no crop straw return (NP), NP plus commercial organic fertilizer (NPO) and NP plus crop straw return (NPS). The experiments measured and analyzed crop yield, agronomic efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, nutrient content in grains, protein content, and the content of protein components in winter wheat grains. The results indicate that: (1) Compared with NP and NPO treatments, the NPS treatment significantly increased the 5-year average maize yield by 21.33% and 20.77%, as well as the annual yield by 9.99% and 13.43%, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in wheat yield among the three fertilizer treatments. (2) Both commercial organic fertilizer application and straw return significantly impacted the grain quality of summer maize and winter wheat. Compared with the NP treatment, the NPO treatment increased the content of various protein components in winter wheat grains by 5.69%~8.28%. The NPS treatment increased the nitrogen content, potassium content, and the content of various protein components in winter wheat grains by 4.68%, 3.96%, and 7.75%~11.38%, respectively. Compared with the NPO treatment, the NPS treatment significantly increased the potassium content, gliadin content, storage protein content, and gluten/gliadin ratio in winter wheat grains by 14.41%, 9.86%, 5.39%, and 9.65%, respectively, and the protein content, protein yield, grain nitrogen content, grain phosphorus content, and annual protein yield in summer maize grains by 6.45%, 28.89%, 6.40%, 23.08%, and 10.43%, respectively. (3) Compared with NP and NPO treatments, the NPS treatment increased the agronomic efficiency for nitrogen fertilizer of summer maize by 118.35% and 113.25%, respectively, as well as the annual agronomic efficiency for nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers by 42.83% and 64.36%, 42.86% and 64.27%, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in the 5-year average agronomic efficiency for nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers of winter wheat among the three fertilizer treatments. In summary, both commercial organic fertilizer application and straw return improved the protein component characteristics in winter wheat grains. Straw return also increased the K content in summer maize grains, as well as the protein content and protein yield in winter wheat grains. Straw return was more beneficial than the commercial organic fertilizer application in improving crop yield, quality, and efficiency in dryland maize\|wheat double cropping areas. Therefore, applying nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers with straw return (NPS) should be more suitable for promotion in dryland maize\|wheat double cropping areas.
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