刘风,王红丽.不同种植方式对高寒旱区地膜小麦耗水特征和产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2024,(3):136~144
不同种植方式对高寒旱区地膜小麦耗水特征和产量的影响
Effects of whole field soil\|plastic mulching on winter wheat water consumption characteristics, growth and yield
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2024.03.15
中文关键词:  全膜覆土穴播;膜侧沟播;耗水特征;冬小麦  生长发育;产量
英文关键词:whole field soil\|plastic mulching  drilling beside plastic film  water consumption characteristics  winter wheat  growth and development  yield
基金项目:甘肃省创新基地和人才计划项目(20JR10RA464)
作者单位
刘风 甘肃省农业科学院甘肃 兰州 730070 
王红丽 甘肃省农业科学院旱地农业研究所,甘肃 兰州 730070 
摘要点击次数: 168
全文下载次数: 133
中文摘要:
      于2019—2022年在陇中高寒旱区以裸地条播为对照(CK),设置全膜覆土穴播(FM)和膜侧沟播(FS)两种覆盖方式,研究不同覆盖种植方式对冬小麦耗水特性、生长发育及产量的影响。结果表明:与CK相比,FM和FS处理播种期~拔节期0~20 cm土层土壤温度分别平均提高3.1℃和2.1℃,灌浆期分别降低0.6℃和1.0℃。覆盖能不同程度提高冬小麦各生育期0~200 cm土层土壤含水量,其中出苗期、返青期、拔节期和灌浆期提高幅度均高于20%。与CK相比,FM处理返青后冬小麦耗水量平均显著提高29.2%,返青前显著降低42.4%;FS处理返青期~灌浆期耗水量提高12.6%,返青前降低25.7%。各处理冬小麦基本苗、分蘖数、公顷穗数、穗粒数、千粒重和产量均表现为FM>FS>CK,处理间差异显著,其中FM和FS处理产量分别较CK平均提高74.7%和45.4%;处理间耗水量差异不显著;FM处理水分利用效率最大,较CK平均提高67.3%,FS次之,较CK平均提高46.1%。综上,地膜覆盖可调节土壤水分状况,改善冬小麦生长发育和成穗情况,显著提高产量和水分利用效率,其中全膜覆土穴播调节效应优于膜侧沟播,是适宜在高寒旱区地膜小麦生产中推广应用的种植方式。
英文摘要:
      To study the effect of different planting methods on winter wheat water consumption characteristics, growth and yield, the treatments of whole soil plastic mulching and bunch seeded (FM), furrow sowing on side of film mulch (FS) and bare soil and strip sowing (CK) were set up. The results showed that compared with CK, soil average temperature at 0~20 cm soil layer of FM and FS increased by 3.1℃ and 2.1℃ during the sowing stage\|jointing stage and decreased by 0.6℃ and 1.0℃ for FM and FS in the filling stage, respectively. Mulching can increase the soil water content of 0~200 cm in each growth period of winter wheat, among them, the increase of seedling stage, regreening stage, jointing stage and filling stage was more than 20%, and the drier, the more increasing. The water consumption of FM was 29.2% higher than that of CK after resuming growth, 42.4% lower before resuming growth, and the difference was significant. The water consumption of FS was 12.6% higher than that of CK after resuming growth, 25.7% lower before resuming growth. Under the effect of increasing the soil temperature in the early growth stage, the soil water content in the dry stage, and the water consumption after resuming growth, the number of basic seedlings and tillers of PM and FS were significantly higher than that of CK. The number of ears per hectare, number of ears, thousand\|grain weight and yield are all shown as follows: FM>FS>CK, and the difference was significant. The yield of FM and FS was 74.7% and 45.4% higher than that of CK. The difference in water consumption among treatments was not significant, therefore, water use efficiency FM was the largest, 67.3% higher than CK, FS was the second, 46.1% higher than CK. CK was the smallest, and the difference reached a significant level. It can be seen that for winter wheat production in high altitude and cold regions, plastic film mulching regulated soil water temperature, improved the matching degree of winter wheat water consumption and soil water supply, and retained more water for use after regreening in the stage which less water demand, so as to improve the growth and development of winter wheat and spike formation, and significantly increase winter wheat yield and water use efficiency. The adjustment effect of whole soil plastic mulching and bunch seeded (FM) was better than that of furrow sowing on side of film mulch (FS). The whole soil plastic mulching and bunch seeded (FM) was a suitable planting method for plastic film wheat in alpine and arid areas.
查看全文  查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器