刘辰熙,王继涛,尹翠,徐广亚,朱红艳,曹云娥.生物炭-蚯蚓原位对设施番茄根际微生物和果实代谢的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2024,(3):182~196
生物炭-蚯蚓原位对设施番茄根际微生物和果实代谢的影响
Effects of biochar\|earthworm in situ on rhizosphere microorganisms and fruit metabolism of facility tomatoes
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2024.03.20
中文关键词:  设施番茄  生物炭  蚯蚓原位  土壤微生物  差异代谢物
英文关键词:facility tomato  biochar  in situ earthworms  soil microorganisms  differential metabolites
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(32260798);宁夏回族自治区“青年拔尖人才培养工程”项目(202101);宁夏回族自治区重点研发计划项目(2021BBF02025)
作者单位
刘辰熙 宁夏大学葡萄酒及园艺学院宁夏 银川 750021 
王继涛 宁夏回族自治区园艺技术推广站宁夏 银川 750004 
尹翠 宁夏共享人力集团有限公司宁夏 银川 750021 
徐广亚 宁夏共享人力集团有限公司宁夏 银川 750021 
朱红艳 宁夏共享人力集团有限公司宁夏 银川 750021 
曹云娥 宁夏大学葡萄酒及园艺学院宁夏 银川 750021 
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中文摘要:
      为改善设施番茄过量施用化肥、品质和产量下降等问题,采用不同土壤改良措施,以‘粉宴1号’番茄为试验材料,设置空白对照(CK)、生物炭(B)、蚯蚓原位(V)、生物炭+蚯蚓原位(BV)4个处理,研究番茄生长发育过程中根区土壤理化性质和土壤根际微生物的变化以及番茄盛果期果实产量和品质的差异,解析不同处理果实代谢物组成的差异。结果表明:BV处理显著提高了土壤速效氮、速效磷和速效钾含量,与CK相比分别提高174.00%、7.44%和45.00%;BV处理显著提高了蔗糖酶活性比CK提高62.02%,V处理显著提高脲酶活性,较CK提高39.72%。BV处理显著提高了土壤细菌Simpson指数,V处理显著提高了土壤真菌Ace、Chao1指数;B处理明显改变了土壤细菌相对丰富占比,其中变形菌门增加最多(45.48%),酸杆菌门和芽单孢菌门降低幅度最大,分别为14.90%和25.70%;对于土壤真菌,B处理中子囊菌门相对丰度最高,提升了15.90%,V处理油壶菌门提升最高,为7.24%,罗兹菌门提升次之,为3.11%。同时,各处理可以显著提高果实产量和品质,BV处理的番茄产量最高、品质最好,表现为其生物量、果实产量、可溶性固形物含量、Vc含量、有机酸含量最高;V处理的番茄果实差异代谢物种类最多,与对照相比差异最大,所得的差异物代谢通路最多。
英文摘要:
      To resolve the problems with excessive application of chemical fertilizers, resulting in poor quality and yield of facility tomatoes, different soil improvement measures were adopted. The experiment used‘Fenyan No. 1’ tomato as the test material, and included blank control (CK), biochar (B), earthworm in situ (V) and biochar + earthworm in situ (BV) to study the changes in the physical and chemical properties of the root zone soil and soil rhizosphere microorganisms during the growth and development of tomatoes as well as the differences in fruit yield and quality during the fruiting period of tomatoes. The differences in metabolite composition of fruits under different treatments were analyzed. The results showed that BV treatment significantly increased soil available nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents when compared with CK by 174%, 7.44%, and 45% respectively. BV treatment significantly increased sucrase activity by 62.02% and V treatment significantly increased urease by 39.72% compared with CK. BV treatment significantly increased the Simpson index of soil bacteria, and V treatment significantly increased the Ace and Chao1 index of soil fungi. B treatment significantly changed the relative abundance of soil bacteria, with Proteobacteria increasing the most, reaching 45.48%, Acidobacteria and The Bacillus Monospora phylum decreased the mostby 14.90% and 25.70% respectively.For soil fungi, the relative abundance of Ascomycota in treatment B was the highest, increasing by 15.90%, and the V treatment had the highest relative abundance of Oychytrids with 7.24% and Rhododendron increased second, reaching 3.11%. At the same time, each treatment significantly improved fruit yield and quality. BV treatment had the best tomato yield and quality effects, as shown by its highest biomass, fruit yield, soluble solids, Vc, and organic acid content. Based on the analysis of the fruit differential metabolites, the tomato fruits obtained in the V treatment had the largest variety of differential metabolites, the greatest difference, and the largest number of differential metabolic pathwayscompared with the control group.
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