金志强,孙东宝,王庆锁.基于APSIM模型的旱地春玉米施肥类型及氮肥用量研究[J].干旱地区农业研究,2024,(3):214~224
基于APSIM模型的旱地春玉米施肥类型及氮肥用量研究
Study on fertilization types and nitrogen application rates of spring maize in dryland based on APSIM model
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2024.03.23
中文关键词:  春玉米  硝态氮  氮肥利用率  有机无机肥配施  APSIM模型
英文关键词:spring maize  nitrate nitrogen  nitrogen use efficiency  integrated organic and inorganic fertilizers  APSIM model
基金项目:国家重点研发计划专项“晋东黄土丘陵区适水改土与种养结合协同技术集成及示范”(2021YFD1900705)
作者单位
金志强 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所/农业部旱作节水农业重点开放实验室北京 100081 
孙东宝 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所/农业部旱作节水农业重点开放实验室北京 100081 
王庆锁 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所/农业部旱作节水农业重点开放实验室北京 100081 
摘要点击次数: 89
全文下载次数: 98
中文摘要:
      为探究玉米高产和减少硝态氮残留的合理施肥模式,通过山西寿阳旱地春玉米田间试验和APSIM模型模拟,研究不同施肥类型和施氮量对春玉米产量、硝态氮残留量和氮肥利用率的影响。田间试验设置3个施肥类型主处理,包括化肥单施、有机无机肥配施(配施比例1∶1)和有机肥单施;7个施肥梯度副处理,分别为0、50、100、150、200、250、300 kg·hm-2,并利用2019—2021年试验站点数据对模型进行校准验证。结果表明:APSIM模型可以较好地模拟当地玉米产量和硝态氮残留量状况。各降水年型下,随氮肥施用量的增加,玉米产量先增加后减少,硝态氮残留量显著增加,氮肥利用率有所降低;相同施肥类型及施肥量下,丰水年的春玉米作物产量最高,硝态氮残留量最低,氮肥利用率最高;相同降水年型及施肥量下,有机无机肥配施方式的春玉米产量最高,硝态氮残留量居中,氮肥利用率最高。相较于化肥单施和有机肥单施方式,有机无机肥配施对于干旱地区玉米产量提升效果更好,其土壤硝态氮残留量对降水变化的敏感性相对较低,其氮肥利用率受降水影响也更小。综上,当施氮量介于148~168 kg·hm-2时,有机无机肥配施方式下土壤硝态氮残留量维持在阈值内,春玉米产量可达到理论产量的95%左右,适宜在研究区域推广应用。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the reasonable fertilization mode for high yield of maize and reduction of nitrate nitrogen residue, the effects of different fertilization types and nitrogen application rates on yield, nitrate nitrogen residue and nitrogen use efficiency of spring maize were studied through a field experiment and APSIM model simulation of spring maize in the Shouyang drylands of Shanxi Province. In the field experiment, three main fertilization treatments were set up, including single application of chemical fertilizer, combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer (combined application ratio of 1∶1) and single application of organic fertilizer. Seven sub\|treatments of fertilization gradients were set at 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 kg·hm-2 and 300 kg·hm-2, respectively, and the model was calibrated and verified by using the fertilization test data of spring maize at the test site from 2019 to 2021. The results showed that the APSIM model better simulated the local maize yield and nitrate nitrogen residue status. Under different precipitation years, increasing amount of nitrogen fertilizer application caused the crop yield to increase first and then decrease. The nitrate nitrogen residue increased significantly, with the nitrogen fertilizer utilization rate decreasing. Under the same fertilization type and nitrogen application rate, the yield of spring maize in wet year was the highest, the nitrate nitrogen residue was the lowest, and the nitrogen use efficiency was the highest. Under the same precipitation year and nitrogen application rate, the yield of spring maize was the highest under the combination of organic and inorganic fertilizers, the nitrate nitrogen residue was in the middle, and the nitrogen fertilizer utilization rate was the highest. In addition, compared with the single application of chemical fertilizer and organic fertilizer, the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers had a better effect on the increase of maize yield in arid areas. The sensitivity of soil nitrate nitrogen residue to precipitation change was relatively low, and its nitrogen fertilizer utilization rate was less affected by precipitation. Overall, the best fertilization method was the combination of organic and inorganic fertilizers. When the nitrogen application rate was between 148~168 kg·hm-2, the nitrate nitrogen residue was maintained within the threshold, and the spring maize yield reached about 95% of the theoretical yield.
查看全文  查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器