买自珍,佘 萍,买 娟,王 勇,周皓蕾,米治明,陆俊武,金学平.半干旱区不同覆膜时期、方式与膜色对土壤水分及马铃薯水分利用效率的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2014,32(1):1~10
半干旱区不同覆膜时期、方式与膜色对土壤水分及马铃薯水分利用效率的影响
Effects of mulching timing, pattern and color of plastic film on soil moisture and water use efficiency of potato
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2014.01.001
中文关键词:  半干旱区  覆膜模式  水分利用效率  马铃薯
英文关键词:the Northwest arid region  plastic film mulching  soil water use efficiency  potato
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划“西北干旱区现代马铃薯种薯产业发展关键技术研究与示范——马铃薯种薯节水高效生产关键技术研究与集成示范”课题(2009BADC5B05);宁夏回族自治区科技计划 “宁夏干旱半干旱区现代节水高效农业关键技术创新与示范”——抗旱节水优良植物优化布局与抗旱节水栽培技术集成创新研究”课题(2011ZDN04)
作者单位
买自珍1,佘 萍1,买 娟2,王 勇3,周皓蕾1,米治明1,陆俊武1,金学平1 (1.固原市农业科学研究所 宁夏 固原 756000 2.宁夏回族自治区地质矿产勘查开发局 宁夏 银川 750021 3.宁夏师范学院 宁夏 固原 756000) 
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中文摘要:
      在宁夏中部干旱区,通过两年田间试验研究了不同覆膜时期、方式及膜色处理对马铃薯农田土壤水分、产量和水分利用效率的影响。结果表明:与裸地栽培相比较,各处理均能提高土壤水分。早春双垄全膜0~100 cm土壤水分含量沟内白膜18.10%和黑膜19.73%,节水18.66 mm和38.46 mm,半膜覆盖白膜17.94%和黑膜16.70%,节水16.77 mm和1.89 mm;马铃薯苗期—现蕾期—开花期—块茎生长期生育阶段,2010—2011年各处理0~200 cm土壤贮水量较裸地高,早春白膜双垄全覆膜处理节水39.23~40.65、24.51~31.08 mm和21.75~30.88 mm,早春黑膜双垄全覆膜处理节水56.85~20.21、37.81~-4.72 mm和29.06~-3.26 mm,播期白膜双垄全覆膜处理节水84.04、88.46 mm和58.87 mm,播期黑膜双垄全覆膜处理节水94.90、60.59 mm和71.94 mm,早春白膜半膜平覆处理节水45.53~-12.25、22.95~6.28 mm和44.97~32.45 mm,早春黑膜半膜平覆处理节水-7.42~18.15、-15.83~16.53 mm和15.85~-17.12 mm,播期白膜半膜平覆处理节水24.03、-3.79 mm和20.32 mm,播期黑膜半膜平覆处理节水-5.2、-40.42 mm和-3.34 mm。各处理0~200 cm土壤水分垂直变化,0~40 cm土壤水分最活跃层次,无明显变化规律,40~80 cm土壤水分变化呈现出规律变化,土壤水分含量表现为高—低—高—低,水分蓄墒层,80~120 cm土层水分缺墒层,120~200 cm深墒 稳定层。地膜栽培能提高马铃薯产量,早春白膜双垄全覆膜模式马铃薯鲜薯产量35 007.85 kg·hm-2,较裸地增产29.31%,降水生产效率116.35 kg·hm-2·mm-1,提高36.15%,早春黑膜双垄全覆膜模式33 823.75 kg·hm-2,增产24.9%,降水生产效率105.7 kg·hm-2·mm-1,提高25%。在干旱地区应推广提早覆膜、双垄全覆膜、膜色黑膜或白膜的抗旱节水栽培模式,该模式节水、增产、生态效益明显。
英文摘要:
      In arid areas of middle Ningxia, two years of field experiments were conducted to elucidate effect of timing, pattern, and film color of plastic mulching on soil moisture, potato yield, and water use efficiency. The results showed that compared with the bare land cultivation, mulching can improve the soil moisture. For early spring double ridges mulching, the water content of 0~100 cm soil were 18.10% and 19.73% for white film and black film, respectively, storing 18.66 mm and 38.46 mm rainwater in the soil. Soil moisture of 0~200 cm depth was higher for mulching treatment during the growth stages of seedling, budding, flowering, tuber growth in 2010—2011. For example, ZBSQ stored 39.23~40.65 mm, 24.51~31.08 mm, and 21.75~30.88 mm. While ZHSQ harvested 56.85~20.21 mm, 37.8 1~-4.72 mm and 29.06~-3.26 mm. In addition, mulching effect was more marked in the 0~40 cm soil profile and 40~80 cm and 80~120 cm. Mulching showed significant effect on potato yield. Early spring mulching with double ridges covered by white film produced 35 007.85 kg·hm-2, being 29.31% higher than that of the bare land, while it had a rainwater use efficiency of 116.35 kg·hm-2·mm-1, increased by 36.15%. Early spring mulching with black film had a yield of 33 823.75 kg·hm-2, increased by 24.9%, and its rainwater use efficiency was 105.7 kg·hm-2·mm-1, increased by 25%. These two patterns are suggested for potato production in middle Ningxia.
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