钱凤魁,黄 毅,董婷婷,孙 杰.不同秸秆还田量对旱地土壤水肥和玉米生长与产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2014,32(2):61~65
不同秸秆还田量对旱地土壤水肥和玉米生长与产量的影响
Effect of crop residue incorporation on soil moisture and nutrient and maize growth and yield of arid farmland
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2014.02.010
中文关键词:  秸秆还田  土壤水肥  玉米  生长  产量
英文关键词:cropresidue incorporation  soil moisture and nutrient  maize  growing  yield
基金项目:公益性行业(农业)科研专项经费项目“东北旱地玉米土、肥、水联合跨季节调控技术体系研究”(200903007)
作者单位
钱凤魁1,黄 毅1,董婷婷2,孙 杰3 (1.沈阳农业大学 土地与环境学院 辽宁 沈阳 110866 2.辽宁省水利水电科学研究院 辽宁 沈阳 110003 3.沈阳市浑南新区水利局 辽宁 沈阳 110179) 
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中文摘要:
      以阜新地区为例,开展不同秸秆还田量对旱地土壤水肥和玉米生长与产量的影响研究。试验设计0 kg·hm-2,6 000 kg·hm-2,12 000 kg·hm-2,18 000 kg·hm-2、24 000 kg·hm-2共5个处理,3次重复,共15个小区,小区面积(4 m×15 m)为60 m2。研究结果表明,对照CK不施用秸秆处理,深耕加秸秆的方法,土壤含水量显著增加,除了对照之外,各个处理剂量之间的差异并不明显,且呈先上升而后下降趋势。说明秸秆在土壤中始终处于水分的非饱和状态,并不是秸秆剂量越大越好。各个层次土壤容重与对照相比变化较明显,其中10~20 cm深处土壤容重变化最大,各个处理土壤容重表现出随秸秆还田量增加土壤容重降低值减少的趋势,下降幅度为12 000 kg·hm-2>6 000 kg·hm-2>18 000 kg·hm-2。秸秆还田处理,提高了植物的叶绿素含量,促进了植物的光合效率,以12 000 kg·h m-2处理较好。不同处理对玉米产量影响差异显著,达到了5%的显著水平,施入量在0~12 000 kg·hm-2之间,玉米产量呈上升趋势,超过18 000 kg·hm-2产量呈下降趋势,因此建议推广剂量为12 000 kg·hm-2
英文摘要:
      Taking Fuxin as the target area, this paper deals with the effect of crop residue incorporation on soil moisture and nutrient and maize yield of arid farmland, with five treatments of 0 kg·hm-2, 6 000 kg·hm-2, 12 000 kg·hm-2, 18 000 kg·hm-2, 24 0 00 kg·hm-2. We had 3 replications and 15 plots, each having an area of 60 m2. Results showed that soil moisture content increased markedly, saving 5%~45% of water as compared with CK (non residue incorporation). Soil bulk density varied significantly, showing a decreasing trend of 12 000 kg·hm-2>6 000 kg·hm-2>18 000 kg·hm-2, especially in the 10~20 cm depth Leaf chlorophyll content and photosynthetic efficiency were increased by crop residue incorporation, especially for the rate of 12 000 kg·hm-2. Crop residue incorporation showed substantial effect on maize yield, being positive within the range of 0~ 12 000 kg·hm-2 and suppressing above 18 000 kg·hm-2. It is thus recommended that the rate of 12 000 kg·hm-2 be optimum for maize production in the target area.
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