干旱沙漠地区空气中水汽收集研究进展
Research progress of water vapor collection in arid desert area
投稿时间:2021-08-03  修订日期:2022-03-23
DOI:
中文关键词:  沙漠  水汽收集  仿生物结构法  仿生材料  集水效率
英文关键词:Desert, Water  vapor collection, Bionic  structure method, Bionic  materials, Water  collection efficiency.
基金项目:2020年中央高校教改专项(长安大学国家级一流课程建设300106202908、300106202909、300106202910);
作者单位邮编
胡安焱* 长安大学水利与环境学院 710054
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中文摘要:
      从湿空气中收集水汽的方法有仿生物结构法、从雾中捕捉水汽法、地下冷凝法、空气水发生器法、吸附剂法等。沙漠生物进化出从湿润空气中获得水汽并输送、消耗、储存水分的能力,以应对极端干旱缺水的环境。以仿生物结构法为基础,选择沙漠中的纳米比亚甲虫、蜘蛛丝、沙漠蜥蜴、纳米比亚针茅和仙人掌为例,分析了不同的水汽收集机理,结果表明拉普拉斯压力梯度和重力作用是水汽收集的关键。仿生超级亲水和超级疏水材料的应用,提高了集水效率,并对水汽收集和仿生材料未来的发展趋势进行了展望。
英文摘要:
      The methods of collecting water vapor from wet air include bionic structure method, capturing water vapor from fog, underground condensation method, air water generator method and adsorbent method. Desert organisms evolved the ability to obtain water vapor from moist air and transport, consume and store water to cope with extreme drought and water shortage. Based on the bionic structure method, the Namibian beetles, spider silks, desert lizards, Stipa Namibianensis and cactus in the desert were selected as examples to analyze different water vapor collection mechanisms. The results showed that the Laplace pressure gradient and gravity were the keys to water vapor collection. The application of bionic super hydrophilic and super hydrophobic materials improves the water collection efficiency, and the future development trend of water vapor collection and bionic materials is prospected.
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