甘肃粮食70年来增长特征及生产能力持续提升战略构思
The trend of grain yield growth in Gansu Province in the past 70 years and the strategic conception of continuous improvement of productive capacity
投稿时间:2022-11-29  修订日期:2023-05-01
DOI:
中文关键词:  甘肃省 粮食产量 增长趋势 生产能力
英文关键词:Gansu  Grain output  Growth trend  production capacity
基金项目:国家现代农业产业技术体系CARS-02
作者单位邮编
樊廷录* 甘肃省农业科学院 730070
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中文摘要:
      新中国成立70年来,甘肃省粮食产量以13.535万t、53.485kg/hm2速度增加。2021年粮食总产、单产和人均占有粮食分别达到1231.5万t、4600.3kg/hm2和494.6kg,总产和单产年均递增率2.54%和3.01%,粮食生产实现了“紧平衡”。每形成1个百万吨级粮食生产能力所需时间由20年降低到3.3年,每形成1个300kg/hm2粮食单产量级需时由8年下降到不足3年。粮食总产和单产增幅显著高于播种面积减幅,粮食增长过程中气候产量波动性降低、技术进步作用明显增强。粮食产量增长得益于玉米和马铃薯播种面积扩大,夏粮与秋粮作物适水种植结构由1978年60.6:39.4调整到2021年32.4:67.6,也归结于粮食生产重心向旱作区转移及地膜覆盖集雨技术突破,旱作区以占75.8%的粮食播种面积、生产了65.4%的粮食。新时期全省粮食需求仍持续增加,近期有1280-1360万t粮食生产能力预期。要着眼于重塑“陇东粮仓”、强化河西粮食生产功能、发挥沿黄及洮渭泾河灌区和徽成盆地生产潜力的战略布局,通过稳面积优结构、建设高标准农田、科技创新、节水增粮高产带建设等工作,保障全省粮食生产再上新台阶。
英文摘要:
      Since the founding of the People"s Republic of China 70 years ago, grain output in Gansu Province has increased at a rate of 135,350 tons and 53.485kg/hm2. In 2021, total grain output, yield per unit area and per capita reached to 12.315 million tons, 4600.3kg/hm2 and 494.6kg, respectively, with an average annual increase rate of 2.54% and 3.01% in total yield and per unit area. Grain production has achieved a "tight balance" between supply and demand of grain. The time needed to produce a grain production capacity of one million tons and a grain yield of 300kg/hm2 decreased from 20 years to 3.3 years and from 8 years to less than 3 years, respectively. The increase of total grain yield and yield per unit area was significantly higher than the decrease of planting area. The fluctuation of climatic yield decreased and the role of technological progress increased significantly during grain growth. The growth of grain output was due to the expansion of the planting area of spring maize and potato, and the water-suitable planting structure of summer and autumn grain crops was adjusted from 60.6:39.4 in 1978 to 32.4:67.6 in 2021. The increase of grain production was also attributed to the shift of grain production focus to dryland areas and the breakthrough of plastic covering rainfall-harvesting technology to increase grain production, and dryland area produces 65.4% of the total grain output with 75.8% of the total planting area of grain. In the new period, the grain demand of the whole province is increasing, and the grain production capacity of 12.8-13.6 million t is expected in the near future. Focusing on the strategic layout of reconstructing the "Longdong grain belt", strengthening the grain production function in Hexi, and emphasizing on the grain production potential in Jinghe irrigated areas along Huanghe and Taowei and Huicheng Basin, the province"s grain production will reach a new level by stabilizing the area and optimizing planting structure, constructing high-standard farmland, technological innovation, and building up high-yield belt with water saving and grain increasing.
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