Evolution characteristics and recharge sources of water and salt in the Yellow River Delta — Based on water chemistry and isotope analysis
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Key Words: Yellow River Delta  surface water  shallow groundwater  hydrochemical characteristics  water salt evolution  isotope analysis
Author NameAffiliation
ZHANG Tai-ping Shandong Institute of Geological Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250013 
WANG Kui-feng Shandong Institute of Geological Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250013 School of Civil Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250061 
WANG Qiang Shandong Institute of Geological Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250013 
LI Jing Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China 
WANG Wei Shandong Institute of Geological Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250013 
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      Based on the sampling of the surface water and shallow groundwater in study area and the combination of the data of the ionic species concentration and stable isotopes, the water chemistry characteristics and the main sources of recharge were systemically analyzed to explore the impact of long-term irrigation on regional water cycle and exchange of surface water and groundwater. The results showed that: (1) The salinity degrees of the surface water and shallow groundwater from the estuary were higher, with an average total dissolved solid (TDS) of 27.96 g·L-1 and 23.17 g·L-1, respectively. Cations of Mg2+, Na+, K+, and anions of Cl- and SO2-4 were the main compositions of surface water and shallow groundwater, which had significant positive correlations with TDS. (2) The hydro-chemical type of shallow groundwater was Cl-Na·K, which was a typical seawater or brine type; the water chemical type of surface water was different as Cl·SO4-Na·K·Ca, which was more complicated due to the industrial, agricultural, and urban pollution. (3) Salt supply sources of surface water were attributed to seawater mixed with urban and agricultural pollution, while the high-ratio areas of recharge with shallow groundwater were mainly from the intrusion of seawater and the infiltration of precipitation and surface water. (4) The high-value areas of recharge with the shallow groundwater from the surface water were mainly distributed in farmland and coastal wetlands under ecological water diversion, and the proportion of recharge was 48%~81%. The recharge proportion from the coastal beach with groundwater had the lowest ratio. It may be caused by the low permeability coefficient with coastal aquifer, compared with farmland and wetland.