Physiological effect of fertilizer on the growth and yield of proso in the reclamation of iron mining area
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DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.04.37
Key Words: reclaimed land  fertilization  proso  growth  soil enzyme  soil microorganism
Author NameAffiliation
WANG Hui Institute of Cotton, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yuncheng, Shanxi 044000, China
Yuncheng Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yuncheng, Shanxi 044000, China 
LI Yong-shan Institute of Cotton, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yuncheng, Shanxi 044000, China
Yuncheng Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yuncheng, Shanxi 044000, China 
DONG Peng Institute of Cotton, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yuncheng, Shanxi 044000, China
Yuncheng Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yuncheng, Shanxi 044000, China 
SUN Tai-sen College of Resources and Environment, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801, China 
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Abstract:
      The effects of fertilization on the growth and physiological and ecological responses on proso were studied by pot experiment with the cultivated soil in Xiangfen dam-break area. The results showed that the applications of nitrogen (NK), phosphorus (PK), combination of N and P (NPK), and organic fertilizers with potassium were beneficial to the growth of proso. Plant height increased by 6.1%, 42.0%, 52.7%, and 45.1%; leaf area increased by 197.6%, 207.7%, 261.6%, and 232.5%; dry weight of shoot increased by 46.3%, 159.1%, 186.6%, and 148.2%; root weight increased by 13.8%, 65.9%, 75.7%, and 67.1%, respectively. Total root length increased by 5.0%, 68.4%, 99.8%, and 91.6%; total root absorption area increased by 24.9%, 50.8%, 68.3%, and 62.2%, active absorption area increased by 46.9%, 57.7%, 96.9%, and 58.9%, respectively. The physiological indexes such as net light rate, chlorophyll content, soluble sugar content, root superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were highly consistent with the growth condition of the proso. Compared with the control, the application of NK fertilizer, PK fertilizer, NPK, and organic fertilizers increased the yield by 80.6%, 200.1%, 266.8%, and 230.6%, respectively. The applications of all kinds of fertilizers were beneficial to the increase of proso yield. Among all treatments, the effect of PK was better than that of NK, P was the primary factor of fertility formation of raw soil used in this experiment, and it was also the limiting factor of the formation of proso yield. Phosphorus, N, and potassium showed significant positive additive effects. The application of organic fertilizer alone could promote the growth of the proso in the early stage of growth (jointing stage), but at the late stage (heading stage), the effect was not as good as that of other treatments because of N deficiency. The activities of phosphatase and urease in rhizosphere soil were positively correlated with the growth of root system, which indicated that the developed root system could promote the rapid growth and reproduction of rhizosphere microbial community. Furthermore, the enzyme activity of rhizosphere soil was improved, which made the original rhizosphere soil develop to the maturation. Under the precondition of applying certain fertilizer, planting proso in the reclaimed land in the mining area obtained relatively normal yield and good economic benefit in that year, and it is one of the local crops which can be selected as pioneer grain.
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