Yield and character changes of mung bean varieties in China based on 14 consecutive years of national mung bean variety regional trials
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DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2024.01.01
Key Words: mung bean  regonal trial  yield  agronomic trait  variety improvement
Author NameAffiliation
MA Zhixiu State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100,China 
QIU Jun National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center, Beijing 100125, China 
GAO Jinfeng State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100,China 
GAO Xiaoli State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100,China 
FENG Baili State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100,China 
YANG Pu State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100,China 
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Abstract:
      GGE biplot, coefficient of variation, correlation analysis, multiple regression and cluster analysis were used to analyze the variation of growth days, plant height, number of main stem nodes, branch number of main stem, pod length, pod numbers per plant, seeds per pod, 1000-grain weight and yield of 130 mung bean varieties provided by 29 breeding units in 12 main producing provinces (municipalities/autonomous regions) of mung bean of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Heilongjiang Province, Jilin Province, Liaoning Province and Shanxi Province during the 14 years of national mung bean varieties regional trial from 2003 to 2016. The variation of quantity in spring and summer sowing groups was compared, and the correlation between characters and the difference of characters of mung bean varieties from different breeding institutions were compared. The results showed that the yield of mung bean in spring and summer sowing groups increased by 14.0% and 25.4% respectively from 2003 to 2016, with an average annual increase of 1.0% and 1.8%, respectively. The number of main stem branches decreased by 12.0% and 15.9% respectively. The changes of other traits were not obvious.The coefficient of variation of main agronomic traits of mung bean in spring sowing group ranged from 5.14% to 17.01%, with an average of 11.33%. The genetic diversity index ranged from 1.91 to 2.08, with an average of 1.99. The coefficient of variation of main agronomic traits of mung beans in the summer sowing group ranged from 5.96% to 19.99%, with an average of 12.52%, and the genetic diversity index ranged from 1.98 to 2.17, with an average of 2.07. Correlation and partial correlation analysis showed that yield was positively correlated with pod length, pod numbers per plant and seeds per pod, but not significantly correlated with other traits. In the summer sowing group, the yield was positively correlated with pod numbers per plant and seeds per pod, and negatively correlated with plant height, branch number of main stem and pod length. Multiple regression analysis showed that growth days, plant height, branch number of main stem, pod length and pod numbers per plant together determined 60.9% yield variation of mung bean in spring sowing group. Plant height, branch number of main stem, pod numbers per plant, seeds per pod and 1000-grain weight of mung bean in summer sowing group jointly determined 87.7% variation of yield. The cluster analysis based on the breeding area showed that 65 spring sowing group varieties were divided into 4 categories, and the comprehensive performance was better in Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi, Henan, Shandong, Jilin and Shaanxi provinces. The 65 summer sowing group varieties were divided into 6 categories, and the comprehensive performance was better in Henan Province, Hebei Province and Shandong Province. From 2003 to 2016, the yield of mung bean varieties in each round of national regional trials increased steadily, indicating that the level of mung bean breeding in China improved to a certain extent. However, the genetic foundation of mung bean varieties was narrow, the diversity of breeding methods was low, and there was no breakthrough variety.