Effect of reducing the application of slow\|release urea on yield and nitrogen use efficiency of winter wheat
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DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2024.01.07
Key Words: slow\|release urea  soil nitrate nitrogen  nitrogen transport  nitrogen use efficiency  winter wheat  yield
Author NameAffiliation
BAI Dongping Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
LU Shiyu Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
GU Xiaobo Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
DU Yadan Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
SONG Hui Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
CAI Wenjing Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
Li Yuannong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
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Abstract:
      To optimize the efficient nitrogen application management of dryland wheat and achieve the goal of efficient production, A 2-year field experiment (2019-2020 and 2020-2021) was conducted to explore the effects of slow\|release urea application reduction on yield and nitrogen utilization of winter wheat. The treatments included no fertilization (CK), no N (T1), 300 kg·hm-2 urea N (T2, conventional nitrogen application), 300 kg·hm-2 slow\|release urea N (T3), 195 kg·hm-2 slow\|release urea N (T4), and 90 kg·hm-2 slow\|release urea N (T5). The results showed that the slow\|release urea treatment (T4 and T5) significantly reduced the NO-3-N accumulation amount in 0~200 cm soil layer and increased the NO-3-N proportion in 0~40 cm soil layer. Application of slow\|release urea significantly increased nitrogen transfer volume and post\|blooming nitrogen uptake of winter wheat, and T3 treatment increased 12.9% and 13.6%, respectively, compared with the local conventional nitrogen treatment. The contribution rate of nitrogen transport to grain increased first and then decreased with the increase of the reduction rate of slow\|release urea application, and reached the maximum under T4 treatment, which increased by 0.2%~50.0% compared with other nitrogen treatments. The application of slow\|release urea improved the yield components and increased the yield to varying degrees. The 2-year yield of T4 treatment was 8 434 and 9 060 kg·hm-2, which increased by 19.7% and 13.9% in 2019-2020, and 17.3% and 10.4% in 2020-2021 compared with T2 and T3 treatment, and the economic benefit increased by 33.3% and 34.0% in 2019-2020, and 26.8% and 23.2% in 2020-2021 compared with T2 and T3 treatment, respectively. The reduced application of slow\|release urea mitigated nitrogen apparent loss, leading to enhanced nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen partial productivity. Through fitting analysis, it was found that when the dosage of slow\|release urea was 208.7 kg·hm-2, the high yield and high efficiency of winter wheat was realized, and the 2-year yield was 8 054 kg·hm-2 and 8 806 kg·hm-2, the net benefit was 6 890 CNY·hm-2 and 8 475 CNY·hm-2, and the NHI was 78.2% and 78.9%, respectively.